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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

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notes

The cells can be categorized in two types:

1. Prokaryotic Cell

2. Eukaryotic Cell

1. Prokaryotic cell
Prokaryotic cells are cells in which true nucleus is absent. They are primitive and incomplete cells. Prokaryotes are always unicellular organisms. For example, archaebacteria, bacteria, blue green algae are all prokaryotes.

 

2. Eukaryotic Cell
Eukaryobc cells are the cells in which true nucleus is present. They are advanced and complete cells. Eukaryotes include all living organisms (both unicellular and multicellular organisms) except bactera and blue green algae.

Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells:

S. No.

Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

1.

Size of cell is generally small (1-10 mm).

Size of cell is generally large (5-100 mm).

2.

Nucleus is absent.

Nucleus is present.

3.

It contains single chromosome.

It contains more than one chromosome.

4.

Nucleolus is absent.

Nucleolus is present.

5.

Membrane bound cell organelles are absent.

Membrane bound cell organelles such as mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, etc., are present.

6.

Cell division takes place by fission or budding.

Cell division takes place by mitotic or meiotic cell division.

definition

  • Unicellular Organism: A unicellular organism is an organism that consists of a single cell. This means all life processes, such as reproduction, feeding, digestion, and excretion, occur in one cell.
  • Multicellular Organism: A multicellular organism is an organism composed of many cells. For example, Human beings have different cells of different shapes and sizes in their body to perform different functions.
  • Prokaryotes Cell: Prokaryotes Cell is single-celled organisms that lack a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
  • Eukaryotic cells: Eukaryotic cells are cells that contain a nucleus and organelles and are enclosed by a plasma membrane.

notes

Classification of organisms:

Organisms can be classified in the following ways:

  1. On the basis of the number of cells

    1. Unicellular Organism

    2. Multicellular Organism

  2. On the basis of types of cells

    1. Prokaryotes 

    2. Eukaryotes

On the basis of the number of cells

Unicellular Organism

Multicellular Organism

1) The body of the organism consists of a single cell.

1) The body of the organism consists of many cells.

2) A single cell carries out all life processes.

2) Different cells are specialized to perform different functions.

3) Injury of cells can lead to the death of individuals.

3) Injury of a few cells won’t affect the individual as the will be replaced.

4) Eg. Amoeba

4) Eg. Humans

On the basis of types of cells

Prokaryotes Cell

Eukaryotes Cell

1) Cells lack a nuclear membrane. 1) Cells have a nuclear membrane.
2) Nucleolus absent 2) Nucleolus present
3) Always unicellular 3) Unicellular or multicellular
4) Membrane bound cell organelles are absent. 4) Membrane bound cell organelles are present.

Eg. Bacteria

Eg. Animal cell

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