Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Introduction to Analytical Chemistry
Basic Analytical Techniques
Structure of Atom
- Introduction of Chemical Bonding
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Octet Rule
- Kossel and Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Formal Charge
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Limitations of the Octet Rule
- Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR)
- Valence Bond Theory
- Molecular Orbital Theory
- Parameters of Covalent Bond
- Dipole Moment
Modern Periodic Table
Elements of Group 1 and 2
Elements of Group 13, 14 and 15
- Electronic Configuration of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
- Trends in Atomic and Physical Properties of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
- Chemical Properties of the Elements of the Groups 13,14 and 15
- Molecular Structures of Some Important Compounds of the Group 13, 14 and 15 Elements
- Chemistry of Notable Compounds of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
States of Matter
Adsorption and Colloids
- Introduction of Chemical Equilibrium
- Equilibrium in Physical Processes
- Equilibrium in Chemical Processes - Dynamic Equilibrium
- Law of Mass Action and Equilibrium Constant
- Homogeneous and Heterogenous Equilibria
- Characteristics of Equilibrium Constant
- Applications of Equilibrium Constants
- Le Chaterlier's Principle and Factors Altering the Composition of Equilibrium
- Industrial Application
Nuclear Chemistry and Radioactivity
Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Chemistry in Everyday Life
- Types of chromatography
- Adsorption chromatography
i) Column chromatography
ii) Thin layer chromatography (TLC)
- Partition chromatography: paper chromatography
The experiment of Separation of dyes in black ink using chromatography.
Aim: To separate different colors from the ink with the help of chromatography.
Requirements: Filter paper, ink, jar, water, pencils, and scales.
Principle: An ink dye consists of several colors. These different dyes have different solubility. Dye with higher solubility in water dissolves quickly and move fast with the water and low soluble will move slowly separating from each other.
Take a thin strip of filter paper
Draw a line on it using a pencil, approximately 3 cm above the lower edge
Put a small drop of ink at the centre of the line. Let it dry.
Lower the filter paper into a jar containing water so that the drop of ink on the paper is just above the water level and leave it undisturbed.
Watch carefully, as the water rises up on the filter paper. Record your observations.
Filter paper as the water rises on it, It takes the more soluble colors within the top and less soluble colors are carried up later.
We get different colours on filter paper by chromatography
- In the process of chromatography, the coloured spot rises on the paper strip as it is soluble in water and thus due to their solubility the spot rises up.
Inference/ Result: Components of a mixture have varying solubility, can be separated using chromatography.