Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Introduction to Analytical Chemistry
Basic Analytical Techniques
Structure of Atom
- Introduction of Chemical Bonding
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Octet Rule
- Kossel and Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Formal Charge
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Limitations of the Octet Rule
- Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR)
- Valence Bond Theory
- Molecular Orbital Theory
- Parameters of Covalent Bond
- Dipole Moment
Modern Periodic Table
Elements of Group 1 and 2
Elements of Group 13, 14 and 15
- Electronic Configuration of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
- Trends in Atomic and Physical Properties of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
- Chemical Properties of the Elements of the Groups 13,14 and 15
- Molecular Structures of Some Important Compounds of the Group 13, 14 and 15 Elements
- Chemistry of Notable Compounds of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
States of Matter
Adsorption and Colloids
- Introduction of Chemical Equilibrium
- Equilibrium in Physical Processes
- Equilibrium in Chemical Processes - Dynamic Equilibrium
- Law of Mass Action and Equilibrium Constant
- Homogeneous and Heterogenous Equilibria
- Characteristics of Equilibrium Constant
- Applications of Equilibrium Constants
- Le Chaterlier's Principle and Factors Altering the Composition of Equilibrium
- Industrial Application
Nuclear Chemistry and Radioactivity
Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Chemistry in Everyday Life
The experiment of Separation of two miscible liquids by distillation.
Aim: To separate a mixture of acetone and water using the distillation method.
Requirements: Distillation flask, a mixture of acetone and water, thermometer, condenser, etc
Principle: Acetone has a low boiling point than water and so is vaporizes faster. The temperature should not exceed the boiling point of water which is determined with the help of a thermometer. Acetone will turn into liquid when it passes through the condenser and water will be left behind in the distillation flask. Hence, pure acetone can be obtained.
- Take the mixture in a distillation flask.
- Fit it with a thermometer and arrange the apparatus as shown
- Heat the mixture slowly keeping a close watch at the thermometer.
- The acetone vaporises, condenses in the condenser, and can be collected from the condenser outlet.
Observation: Acetone got vaporized and while passing through the condenser, it got converted into liquid form again.
Inference/ Result: Acetone is a volatile liquid and vaporises easily on heating and water remains in the flask as till it’s the boiling point is not received. On cooling, acetone again converts into its liquid form which is free of water.