Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Introduction to Analytical Chemistry
Basic Analytical Techniques
Structure of Atom
- Introduction of Chemical Bonding
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Octet Rule
- Kossel and Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Formal Charge
- Kossel-lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding - Limitations of the Octet Rule
- Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR)
- Valence Bond Theory
- Molecular Orbital Theory
- Parameters of Covalent Bond
- Dipole Moment
Modern Periodic Table
Elements of Group 1 and 2
Elements of Group 13, 14 and 15
- Electronic Configuration of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
- Trends in Atomic and Physical Properties of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
- Chemical Properties of the Elements of the Groups 13,14 and 15
- Molecular Structures of Some Important Compounds of the Group 13, 14 and 15 Elements
- Chemistry of Notable Compounds of Elements of Groups 13, 14 and 15
States of Matter
Adsorption and Colloids
- Introduction of Chemical Equilibrium
- Equilibrium in Physical Processes
- Equilibrium in Chemical Processes - Dynamic Equilibrium
- Law of Mass Action and Equilibrium Constant
- Homogeneous and Heterogenous Equilibria
- Characteristics of Equilibrium Constant
- Applications of Equilibrium Constants
- Le Chaterlier's Principle and Factors Altering the Composition of Equilibrium
- Industrial Application
Nuclear Chemistry and Radioactivity
Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Chemistry in Everyday Life
To obtain pure copper sulphate from an impure sample.
Aim: To obtain pure copper sulphate from an impure sample
Requirements: Sample, china dish, burner, filter paper.
Principle: Heating produces a saturated solution of the salt. This solution cools and its oversaturation results in the formation of copper sulphate crystals which are free of any impurities.
- Take some (approximately 5 g) impure sample of copper sulphate in a china dish.
- Dissolve it in minimum amount of water.
- Filter the impurities out.
- Evaporate water from the copper sulphate solution so as to get a saturated solution.
- Cover the solution with a filter paper and leave it undisturbed at room temperature to cool slowly for a day.
Observation: We could obtain crystals of copper sulphate in the china dish.
Inference/ Result: Crystallisation is a process that separates a pure solid in the form of its crystals from a solution. Hence, we could obtain pure copper sulphate.
What type of mixtures is separated by the technique of crystallization?
By the technique of crystallization, pure solids are separated from impurities. For example, salt obtained from sea is separated from impurities; crystals of alum (Phitkari) are separated from impure samples.