Maharashtra State BoardHSC Science (General) 11th
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Durkheims’ Theory of Suicide

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description

Definition of Suicide

Forms of Suicide

definition

Suicide: According to Durkheim, “suicide refers to every case of death which results directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act, carried out by the victim himself, knowing that it will produce this result”.

notes

Durkheim’S Theory of Suicide:

Emile Durkheim has presented an elaborate analysis of suicide as a social fact and phenomenon in his book, ‘Le Suicide’.Durkheim does not recognise suicide as being caused by personal weaknesses, psychological frustration, or other personal, economic, or familial factors. According to Durkheim, it is a social fact. On collecting numerous social surveys Durkheim proved that suicide is a social phenomenon.

Once there is a lack of social integration or social solidarity the element of suicide begins. Even degeneration of moral values, value conflicts, negative pressure over the individual can cause suicide.

Definition of Suicide:

According to Durkheim, “suicide refers to every case of death which results directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act, carried out by the victim himself, knowing that it will produce this result”.

Forms of Suicide:

  1. Egoistic suicide: When a person becomes socially isolated or feels he/she has no place in the society they destroy themselves.
    Example: Prima shifted to Mumbai a year ago from a remote village. Now she has no friends to talk to and feels very lonely. The regional gap socially excludes her and she has committed suicide due to the feeling of isolation. This is an eg of Egoistic Suicide.

  2. Anomic suicide: Anomie is a state of normlessness, the state is sometimes referred to as ‘deregulation’. In simple words, when you can’t cope with circumstances you commit Anomic Suicide.
    Example: A farmer who is in debt and has no way to repay the loan, his crops aren’t growing and he can’t take care of his family. All the circumstances are out of his control, he can’t overcome them and thus decides to commit suicide. This is an example of Anomic Suicide.

  3. Altruistic Suicide: This is the opposite of Egoistic Suicide. Here you commit suicide with the objective of doing well for others. This is value-oriented.
    Example: Sati system by Indian women was committed in the past. This according to them was for the welfare of the society. This is stopped now but it is still an example of Anomic Suicide.

  4. Fatalistic Suicide: Extreme Control of the Society in one’s life is the reason for Fatalistic suicide m. That repression causes suicide.
    Example: If the parents are very strict with a child and have no basic personal freedom then the child feels repressive and commits suicide.
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