Introduction of Sociology
Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists
- Introduction to Western Sociologists
- Abdul Rahman Ibn-khaldun
- Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
- Law of Three Stages
- Harriet Martineau (1802 – 1876)
- Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
- Durkheims’ Theory of Suicide
- William Du Bois (1868 – 1963)
- Karl Marx (1818-1883)
- Marxian Theory of ‘Class Conflict’
- Introduction to Indian Sociologists
- Dr. G. S. Ghurye (1893-1983)
- Dr. M. N. Srinivas (1916-1999)
- Dr. Iravati Karve (1905-1970)
Basic Concepts in Sociology
- Introduction of Society
- Definition of Society
- Characteristics of Society
- Introduction of Community
- Definition of Community
- Elements of Community
- Introduction of Social Group
- Definition of Social Group
- Characteristics of Social Group
- Types of Social Group
- Concept of Social Status
- Types of Social Status
- Concept of Social Role
- Social Role Related Concept
- Concept of Social Norms
- Types of Social Norms
- Concept of Social Institutions
- Characteristics of Social Institutions
- Concept of Family
- Functions of Family
- Forms of Family
- Twenty-first Century Families
- Concept of Marriage
- Forms of Marriage
- Family, Marriage and Kinship
- Economy and Work
- Concept of Education
- Types of Education
- Importance of Education
- Education and Social Division
The Process of Socialization:
Stage 1: Imitation:
In this stage, children imitate behaviour of adults without understanding it. A little boy might drive his mother to her office by driving his toy car or help his parents clean the floor by pushing a broom or stick around the room.
Stage 2: Play Stage:
A child plays, sometimes as being a mother or a teacher, at times a postal worker, a police officer, etc. In this stage, responses are not organised. A child internalises the attitudes of others who are significant to her/him through enacting the roles of others. ‘Significant others’ is a term used by Mead to refer to those individuals who are most important in the development of the ‘self’. A significant other is someone whose opinions matter to us and who is in a position to influence our thinking, especially about ourselves. A significant other can be anyone such as parents, siblings, friends, and teachers.
Stage 3: Game Stage:
As a child matures, and as the self gradually develops, one internalises the expectations of a large number of people. They learn to understand interactions involving different people with a variety of purposes. They understand that ‘role play’ in each situation involves following a consistent set of rules and expectations. For example, a child at this stage is likely to be aware of the different responsibilities of people in a restaurant who together, make for a smooth dining experience (someone seats you, another takes your order, someone else cooks the food, while yet another person clears away used dishes). Now they develop the ability to take the role according to the perception of others.
1. The Oral Stage (0-1 year) and The Anal Stage (1-4 years):
At the oral stage, the infant builds up definite expectations about feeding time and learns to signal for care.
The Anal Stage Is concerned with the toilet training of the child.
2. Oedipal Stage(4-Puberty Age):
This stage begins roughly at the fourth year and goes up to puberty. This is the period when the child becomes a member of the family as a whole.
(Search For Self) In anticipatory socialization, the individual mimics or copy the behavior of his anticipated future role.
For example - if one has anticipated his/her future role as a doctor he/she will start picking up doctor’s mannerism.