Introduction of Sociology
Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists
- Introduction to Western Sociologists
- Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
- Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
- Karl Marx (1818-1883)
- Abdul Rahman Ibn-khaldun
- Harriet Martineau (1802 – 1876)
- Durkheims’ Theory of Suicide
- William Du Bois (1868 – 1963)
- Marxian Theory of ‘Class Conflict’
- Introduction to Indian Sociologists
- Dr. G. S. Ghurye (1893-1983)
- Dr. M. N. Srinivas (1916-1999)
- Dr. Iravati Karve (1905-1970)
Basic Concepts in Sociology
- Introduction of Society
- Definition of Society
- Characteristics of Society
- Introduction of Community
- Definition of Community
- Elements of Community
- Introduction of Social Group
- Definition of Social Group
- Characteristics of Social Group
- Types of Social Group
- Concept of Social Status
- Types of Social Status
- Concept of Social Role
- Social Role Related Concept
- Concept of Social Norms
- Types of Social Norms
- Concept of Social Institutions
- Characteristics of Social Institutions
- Concept of Family
- Functions of Family
- Forms of Family
- Twenty-first Century Families
- Concept of Marriage
- Forms of Marriage
- Family, Marriage and Kinship
- Economy and Work
- Concept of Education
- Types of Education
- Importance of Education
- Education and Social Division
Characteristics of Class:
(1) Wealth and Income: Possession of substantial amounts of wealth is the main characteristic distinguishing the upper class from other class groups in society. Persons having more wealth and income generally have higher social position and respect in society.
(2) Occupation: Occupation is an exceedingly important aspect of social class and as such, it is another determinant of class status. It is a well-known fact that some kinds of work are more honourable than others, e.g., doctors, engineers, administrators, professors, and lawyers hold a higher position than people who are in labour-intensive professions.
(3) Education: There is a close, reciprocal relationship between social class
and education. One’s extent and kind of education affects the class rank that can be secured. Higher education gives opportunities for upward mobility.
(4) Prestige: It refers to the respect and admiration with which occupation is regarded by society. Prestige is independent of the particular person who occupies a job. Sociologists have tried to assign prestige rankings to various occupations.
Common Basis For Division Of Class:
The class system is based on occupation, wealth, education, age, and sex.
Hierarchy of status group. In general, there are 3 classes – upper middle & tower. Status, prestige & role is attached. The upper class is less in no in comparison to the other two whereas their status & prestige is most. This is like a pyramid. Karl max (Rich & poor) preliterate &
Feeling of superiority & inferiority. In these 3 classes, there are such feelings the upper-class people feel they are superior to the other two whereas the lower class feels it is inferior to the upper class.
Class consciousness – wherever a class is formed this feeling consciousness is a must. There should be a feeling of in-group i.e. I belong to class conflict is due to this the people of the preliterate class feel the upper class exploits them their they unite revolt. The behavior action is determined by this class consciousness.
Sub-classes, class is divided into different groups. Similar to the caste system, the class system is divided.
Class system is an open system.
There's a social restriction in this too. In general, there is an endogamy in a class. To maintain their status & position they mix among themselves & it is seldom that marriage between upper & lower class is wished. The distinction between Caste & class. They are the two phenomena of social stratification (Stratification is the division of society on the basis of birth).