Introduction of Sociology
Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists
- Introduction to Western Sociologists
- Abdul Rahman Ibn-khaldun
- Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
- Law of Three Stages
- Harriet Martineau (1802 – 1876)
- Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
- Durkheims’ Theory of Suicide
- William Du Bois (1868 – 1963)
- Karl Marx (1818-1883)
- Marxian Theory of ‘Class Conflict’
- Introduction to Indian Sociologists
- Dr. G. S. Ghurye (1893-1983)
- Dr. M. N. Srinivas (1916-1999)
- Dr. Iravati Karve (1905-1970)
Basic Concepts in Sociology
- Introduction of Society
- Definition of Society
- Characteristics of Society
- Introduction of Community
- Definition of Community
- Elements of Community
- Introduction of Social Group
- Definition of Social Group
- Characteristics of Social Group
- Types of Social Group
- Concept of Social Status
- Types of Social Status
- Concept of Social Role
- Social Role Related Concept
- Concept of Social Norms
- Types of Social Norms
- Concept of Social Institutions
- Characteristics of Social Institutions
- Concept of Family
- Functions of Family
- Forms of Family
- Twenty-first Century Families
- Concept of Marriage
- Forms of Marriage
- Family, Marriage and Kinship
- Economy and Work
- Concept of Education
- Types of Education
- Importance of Education
- Education and Social Division
Elements of Community:
(1) Group of People:
A group of people is the most fundamental or essential characteristic or element of the community. This group may be small or large but the community always refers to a group of people. Because without a group of people we can’t think of a community when a group of people live together and share a common life and binded by a strong sense of community consciousness at that moment a community is formed. Hence a group of people is the first pre-requisites of community.
(2) A definite locality:
It is the next important characteristic of a community. Because the community is a territorial group. A group of people alone can’t form a community. A group of people forms a community only when they reside in a definite territory. The territory need not be fixed forever. A group of people like nomadic people may change their habitations. But the majority community is settled and a strong bond of unity and solidarity is derived from their living in a definite locality.
(3) Community Sentiment:
It is another important characteristic or element of the community. Because without community sentiment a community can’t be formed only with a group of people and a definite locality. Community sentiment refers to a strong sense of awe feeling among the members or a feeling of belonging together. It refers to a sentiment of common living that exists among the members of a locality. Because of common living within an area for a long time, a sentiment of common living is created among the members of that area. With this, the members emotionally identify themselves. This emotional identification of the members distinguishes them from the members of other communities.
Communities are naturally organised. It is neither a product of human will nor created by an act of government. It grows spontaneously. Individuals became a member by birth.
(5) Permanence :
A community is always a permanent group. It refers to a permanent living of individuals within a definite territory. It is not temporary like that of a crowd or association.
The members of a community are similar in a number of ways. As they live within a definite locality they lead a common life and share some common ends. Among the member's similarity in language, culture, customs, and traditions and in many other things is observed. Similarities in these respects are responsible for the development of community sentiment.
(7) Wider Ends:
A community has wider ends. Members of a community associate not for the fulfillment of a particular end but for a variety of ends. These are natural for a community.
(8) Total organised social life:
A community is marked by total organised social life. It means a community includes all aspects of social life. Hence a community is a society in miniature.
(9) A Particular Name :
Every community has a particular name by which it is known to the world. Members of a community are also identified by that name. For example, people living in Odisha are known as odia.
(10) No Legal Status:
A community has no legal status because it is not a legal person. It has no rights and duties in the eyes of law. It is not created by the law of the land.
(11) Size of Community:
A community is classified on the basis of its size. It may be big or small. A village is an example of a small community whereas a nation or even the world is an example of a big community. Both the type of community is essential for human life.
(12) Concrete Nature:
A community is a concrete in nature. As it refers to a group of people living in a particular locality we can see its existence. Hence it is concrete.
(13) A community exists within society and possesses a distinguishable structure which distinguishes it from others.