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Human Genome Project

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Topics

description

  • Human Genome Project
  • Goals of HGP
  • Methodologies
  • Salient Features of Human Genome
  • Applications and Future Challenges

notes

Human Genome Project:

  • The total genetic content in a haploid set of chromosomes in eukaryotes, in a single chromosome in bacteria, or in the DNA or RNA viruses is called genome.
  • When two individuals differ, their DNA sequence should also differ.
  • These assumptions led to the quest of finding out the complete DNA sequence of human genome, i.e. the mapping of whole genome on a nucleotide level. 
  • The establishment of genetic engineering made it possible to isolate and clone any segment of DNA.  
  • Furthermore, easier and faster techniques of DNA sequencing helped the project.  
  • The international human genome project was launched in the year 1990.
  • Human Genome Project (HGP) was called a mega project.
  • The human genome is about 25 times larger than the genome of any organism sequenced to date and is the first vertebrate genome to be completed.
  • The human genome is said to have approximately 3 × 109 bp.
  • As a huge amount of data was sequenced, storage of the enormous data was troublesome.  
  • This led to the development of a new area in biology named 'Bioinformatics', which included the use of computational techniques. It provided the necessary high speed, sufficient storage, and ease of data analysis and retrieval.
  • The Human Genome Project was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institute of Health.
  • The project was completed in 2003. 
  • During the early years of the HGP, the 'Wellcome Trust (U.K.)' became a major partner; additional contributions came from Japan, France, Germany, China, and others.
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