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Infertility

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Topics

description

  • IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. 
  • ICSI: Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection  
  • GIFT: Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer 
  • ZIFT: Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer  
  • IUT: Intra-Uterine Transfer
  • IUI: Intra-Uterine insemination

notes

Infertility:

Infertility is the inability to produce children in spite of unprotected sexual cohabitation. Reasons could be physical, congenital, diseases, drugs, immunological or even psychological. Often female is blamed for being childless but the fault could more often than not lie with the male as well. Specialized health care units like infertility clinics could help in the corrective treatment of some of these disorders. In case corrective treatments are not possible couples could be helped with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Infertility is of two types: Primary and secondary. 

  • Primary: If patients have never conceived. 
  • Secondary: In patients who have previously conceived. 

Cure of Infertility:  

If by medical attention, infertility is cured then fertility may be regained. But if fertility cannot be cured, then the couple has to depend on Assisted Reproductive Technology. Art helps infertile couples in retrieving egg/sperm from gonads, bringing about artificial insemination and development of embryo, etc. The various procedures of ART are:  

  • IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. 
  • ICSI: Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection  
  • GIFT: Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer 
  • ZIFT: Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer  
  • IUT: Intra-Uterine Transfer
  • IUI: Intra-Uterine insemination

1) IVF- ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. 

This is one of the most commonly used procedures. Eggs are combined with partners sperm in a dish in a laboratory. Once fertilization has occurred, the resulting embryos develop for 3 to 5 days before being placed in the uterus.  

2) ICSI: Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection 

One of the partners' sperms is placed inside the egg with a microscopic needle, rather than many sperms positioned close to the egg as in IVF, in a dish in a lab. Once fertilization occurs, the resulting embryo is placed in the uterus.  

3) Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT): 

The ovum from the donor is collected and transferred into another female who cannot produce one but can provide conditions for fertilization and further development. 

4) Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT):  

The zygote or early embryo (up to 8 blastomeres) can be transferred into the fallopian tube of the female.  

5) Intra-Uterine Transfer (IUT):  

Embryos with more than 8 blastomeres can be transferred directly into the uterus. 

6) Artificial insemination (AI) technique: 

In this technique, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus (IUI – intra-uterine insemination) of the female. 

7) Donor egg or Embryo:  

If one is unable to conceive using her own eggs, an egg donated by another woman is mixed with her partner’s sperm and the resulting embryo is implanted in the uterus. This procedure can also be done with a donated embryo or sperm.  

8) Surrogacy or use of a gestational carrier: 

 Another woman carries an embryo or a donor embryo to term.  

Infertility in men: 

Azoospermia is defined as the lack of spermatozoa in the ejaculated semen at least two times and affects about 1% of the population. Extraction of micro-testicular sperm (TESE) Microsurgical sperm retrieval from the testicle entails making a small midline incision in the scrotum and seeing one or both testicles. The seminiferous tubules are dilated under the microscope, and a tiny portion of testicular tissue in areas of active sperm production is removed, improving sperm yield compared to traditional biopsy approaches. 

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Shaalaa.com | Infertility: Artificial Insemination

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