- Safety measure in using electricity: Electric fuse, earthing
DOMESTIC ELECTRIC CURRENTS:-
In our homes, we receive supply of electric power through a main supply (also called mains), either supported through overhead electric poles or by underground cables.
One of the wires in this supply, usually with red insulation cover, is called live wire (or positive). Another wire, with black insulation, is called neutral wire (or negative).
In our country, the potential difference between the two is 220 V.
-At the meter-board in the house, these wires pass into an electricity meter through a main fuse.
-Through the main switch they are connected to the line wires in the house.
-These wires supply electricity to separate circuits within the house.
- Often, two separate circuits are used,
-One of 15 A current rating for appliances with higher power ratings such as geysers, air coolers, etc.
-The other circuit is of 5 A current rating for bulbs, fans, etc.
-The earth wire, which has insulation of green colour, is usually connected to a metal plate deep in the earth near the house.
-This is used as a safety measure, especially for those appliances that have a metallic body, for example, electric press, toaster, table fan, refrigerator, etc.
-The metallic body is connected to the earth wire, which provides a low-resistance conducting path for the current.
-Thus, it ensures that any leakage of current to the metallic body of the appliance keeps its potential to that of the earth, and the user may not get a severe electric shock.