#### Topics

##### Electrostatics

##### Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

- Van De Graaff Generator
- Effect of Dielectric on Capacity
- The Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Electrostatics of Conductors
- Potential Energy of a Dipole in an External Field
- Potential Energy of a System of Two Charges in an External Field
- Potential Energy of a Single Charge
- Potential Energy of a System of Charges
- Potential Due to an Electric Dipole
- Relation Between Electric Field and Electrostatic Potential
- Energy Stored in a Capacitor
- Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor with and Without Dielectric Medium Between the Plates
- Combination of Capacitors
- Capacitors and Capacitance
- Dielectrics and Polarisation
- Free Charges and Bound Charges Inside a Conductor
- Conductors and Insulators Related to Electric Field
- Electrical Potential Energy of a System of Two Point Charges and of Electric Dipole in an Electrostatic Field
- Equipotential Surfaces
- Potential Due to a System of Charges
- Electric Potential Difference
- Potential Due to a Point Charge
- Electric Potential

##### Electric Charges and Fields

- Gauss’s Law
- Physical Significance of Electric Field
- Electric Field Due to a System of Charges
- Charging by Induction
- Electric Field Due to a Point Charge
- Uniformly Charged Infinite Plane Sheet and Uniformly Charged Thin Spherical Shell (Field Inside and Outside)
- Applications of Gauss’s Law
- Electric Flux
- Dipole in a Uniform External Field
- Electric Dipole
- Electric Field Lines
- Introduction of Electric Field
- Continuous Charge Distribution
- Superposition Principle of Forces
- Forces Between Multiple Charges
- Force Between Two Point Charges
- Coulomb’s Law
- Basic Properties of Electric Charge
- Electric Charges

##### Current Electricity

##### Current Electricity

- Limitations of Ohm’s Law
- Electric Currents in Conductors
- Conductivity and Conductance;
- Current Density
- Delta Star Transformation
- Potential Difference and Emf of a Cell
- Measurement of Internal Resistance of a Cell
- Potentiometer
- Metre Bridge
- Wheatstone Bridge
- Kirchhoff’s Rules
- Cells in Series and in Parallel
- Cells, Emf, Internal Resistance
- Temperature Dependence of Resistance
- Combination of Resistors – Series and Parallel
- Resistivity of Various Materials
- Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity
- Electrical Energy and Power
- V-I Characteristics (Linear and Non-linear)
- Ohm’s Law
- Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity
- Flow of Electric Charges in a Metallic Conductor
- Electric Current

##### Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

##### Magnetism and Matter

- Introduction of Magnetism
- Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity
- Curie Law of Magnetism
- Magnetism and Gauss’s Law
- Hysteresis Loop
- Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets
- Magnetic Properties of Materials
- The Earth’s Magnetism
- The Bar Magnet
- Torque on a Magnetic Dipole (Bar Magnet) in a Uniform Magnetic Field
- Dipole in a Uniform External Field
- Magnetic Field Intensity Due to a Magnetic Dipole (Bar Magnet) Perpendicular to Its Axis
- Magnetic Field Intensity Due to a Magnetic Dipole (Bar Magnet) Along Its Axis
- Magnetic Dipole Moment of a Revolving Electron
- Current Loop as a Magnetic Dipole and Its Magnetic Dipole Moment
- Magnetic Substances

##### Moving Charges and Magnetism

- The Magnetic Dipole Moment of a Revolving Electron
- Circular Current Loop as a Magnetic Dipole
- Torque on a Rectangular Current Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field
- Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop
- Motion in a Magnetic Field
- Velocity Selector
- Solenoid and the Toroid - the Toroid
- Solenoid and the Toroid - the Solenoid
- Magnetic Diapole
- Moving Coil Galvanometer
- Torque on a Current Loop in Magnetic Field
- Force Between Two Parallel Currents, the Ampere
- Force on a Current - Carrying Conductor in a Uniform Magnetic Field
- Cyclotron
- Force on a Moving Charge in Uniform Magnetic and Electric Fields
- Straight and Toroidal Solenoids (Only Qualitative Treatment)
- Ampere’s Circuital Law
- Magnetic Field Due to a Current Element, Biot-Savart Law
- Oersted’s Experiment
- Magnetic Force

##### Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

##### Alternating Current

- Ac Voltage Applied to a Capacitor
- Ac Voltage Applied to an Inductor
- Representation of Ac Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors - Phasors
- Ac Voltage Applied to a Resistor
- Alternating Currents and Direct Currents
- Forced Oscillations and Resonance
- Transformers
- Power in Ac Circuit: the Power Factor
- Ac Voltage Applied to a Series Lcr Circuit
- LC Oscillations
- Reactance and Impedance
- Peak and Rms Value of Alternating Current Or Voltage
- Alternating Currents

##### Electromagnetic Induction

- Electromagnetic Induction Questions
- AC Generator
- Self-Inductance
- Energy Consideration: a Quantitative Study
- Motional Electromotive Force
- The Experiments of Faraday and Henry
- Magnetic Flux
- Faraday’s Law of Induction
- Mutual Inductance
- Eddy Currents
- Lenz’S Law and Conservation of Energy
- Induced Emf and Current
- Electromagnetic Induction

##### Electromagnetic Waves

##### Electromagnetic Waves

##### Optics

##### Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

- Telescope
- The Eye
- Refraction Through a Prism
- Refraction by a Lens
- Snell’s Law
- Concave Mirror
- Rarer and Denser Medium
- Lensmaker's Formula
- Thin Lens Formula
- Lenses
- The Microscope
- Some Natural Phenomena Due to Sunlight
- Dispersion by a Prism
- Combination of Thin Lenses in Contact
- Power of a Lens
- Magnification
- Refraction at Spherical Surfaces
- Total Internal Reflection
- Refraction
- Ray Optics - Mirror Formula
- Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors
- Light Process and Photometry

##### Wave Optics

- Introduction of Wave Optics
- The Validity of Ray Optics
- Seeing the Single Slit Diffraction Pattern
- The Single Slit
- The Doppler Effect
- Reflection of a Plane Wave by a Plane Surface
- Refraction at a Rarer Medium
- Refraction of a Plane Wave
- Refraction of Monochromatic Light
- Law of Malus
- Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves
- Principle of Superposition of Waves
- Corpuscular Theory
- Width of Central Maximum
- Polarisation
- Resolving Power of Microscope and Astronomical Telescope
- Interference
- Proof of Laws of Reflection and Refraction Using Huygen'S Principle
- Brewster's Law
- Plane Polarised Light
- Fraunhofer Diffraction Due to a Single Slit
- Coherent and Incoherent Sources and Sustained Interference of Light
- Interference of Light Waves and Young’S Experiment
- Reflection and Refraction of Plane Wave at a Plane Surface Using Wave Fronts
- Huygens Principle
- Speed of Light

##### Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

##### Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

- Einstein’S Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation
- Particle Nature of Light: the Photon
- Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light
- Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
- Einstein’s Equation - Particle Nature of Light
- Electron Emission
- Davisson-Germer Experiment
- de-Broglie Relation
- Wave Nature of Matter
- Photoelectric Effect - Hallwachs’ and Lenard’S Observations
- Photoelectric Effect - Hertz’S Observations
- Dual Nature of Radiation

##### Atoms and Nuclei

##### Nuclei

- Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion
- Nuclear Reactor
- Fission
- Introduction of Nuclear Energy
- Gamma Decay
- Beta Decay
- Nuclear Binding Energy
- Mass - Energy
- Size of the Nucleus
- Nuclear Fusion – Energy Generation in Stars
- Mass-Energy Relation and Mass Defect
- Law of Radioactive Decay
- Alpha Decay
- Introduction of Radioactivity
- Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus
- Nuclear Force

##### Atoms

- Atomic Spectra
- The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom
- De Broglie’S Explanation of Bohr’S Second Postulate of Quantisation
- Heisenberg and De Broglie Hypothesis
- Thompson Model
- Dalton'S Atomic Theory
- Introduction of Atoms
- Hydrogen Spectrum
- Energy Levels
- Bohr'S Model for Hydrogen Atom
- Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’S Nuclear Model of Atom

##### Electronic Devices

##### Semiconductor Electronics - Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

- Integrated Circuits
- Feedback Amplifier and Transistor Oscillator
- Transistor as a Device
- Basic Transistor Circuit Configurations and Transistor Characteristics
- Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
- p-n Junction
- Intrinsic Semiconductor
- Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors
- Extrinsic Semiconductor
- Transistor Action
- Transistor: Structure and Action
- Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
- Transistor as an Amplifier (Ce-configuration)
- Transistor and Characteristics of a Transistor
- Semiconductor Diode
- Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator
- Special Purpose P-n Junction Diodes
- Diode as a Rectifier
- Energy Bands in Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators
- Concept of Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
- Triode

##### Communication Systems

##### Communication Systems

- Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave
- Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave
- Basic Terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems
- Sinusoidal Waves
- Modulation and Its Necessity
- Amplitude Modulation
- Need for Modulation and Demodulation
- Satellite Communication
- Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
- Bandwidth of Transmission Medium
- Bandwidth of Signals
- Elements of a Communication System

##### The Special Theory of Relativity

##### The Special Theory of Relativity

#### notes

## Power of lens:

A convex lens with short focal length converges the light rays with greater degree nearer to principal focus and a concave lens with short focal length diverges the light rays with greater degree nearer to principal focus.

The degree of divergence or convergence of ray of light by a lens is expressed in terms of the power of lens. Degree of convergence and divergence depends upon the focal length of a lens. The power of a lens is denoted by ‘P’. The power of a lens is reciprocal of the focal length.

Power = `1/("Focal length f")`

or, P = `1/"f"`

The SI unit of Power of lens is dioptre and it is denoted by ‘D’.

Power of a lens is expressed in dioptre when the focal length is expressed in metre. Thus, a lens having 1 metre of focal length has power equal to 1 dipotre.

Therefore, 1 D = 1 m^{−1}

A convex lens has power in positive and a concave lens has power in negative.