#### Topics

##### Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

- Van De Graaff Generator
- Effect of Dielectric on Capacity
- The Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Electrostatics of Conductors
- Potential Energy of a Dipole in an External Field
- Potential Energy of a System of Two Charges in an External Field
- Potential Energy of a Single Charge
- Potential Energy of a System of Charges
- Potential Due to an Electric Dipole
- Relation Between Electric Field and Electrostatic Potential
- Energy Stored in a Capacitor
- Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor with and Without Dielectric Medium Between the Plates
- Combination of Capacitors
- Capacitors and Capacitance
- Dielectrics and Polarisation
- Free Charges and Bound Charges Inside a Conductor
- Conductors and Insulators Related to Electric Field
- Electrical Potential Energy of a System of Two Point Charges and of Electric Dipole in an Electrostatic Field
- Equipotential Surfaces
- Potential Due to a System of Charges
- Electric Potential Difference
- Potential Due to a Point Charge
- Electric Potential

##### Electrostatics

##### Electric Charges and Fields

- Gauss’s Law
- Physical Significance of Electric Field
- Electric Field Due to a System of Charges
- Charging by Induction
- Electric Field Due to a Point Charge
- Uniformly Charged Infinite Plane Sheet and Uniformly Charged Thin Spherical Shell (Field Inside and Outside)
- Applications of Gauss’s Law
- Electric Flux
- Dipole in a Uniform External Field
- Electric Dipole
- Electric Field Lines
- Introduction of Electric Field
- Continuous Charge Distribution
- Superposition Principle of Forces
- Forces Between Multiple Charges
- Force Between Two Point Charges
- Coulomb’s Law
- Basic Properties of Electric Charge
- Electric Charges

##### Current Electricity

##### Current Electricity

- Limitations of Ohm’s Law
- Electric Currents in Conductors
- Conductivity and Conductance;
- Current Density
- Delta Star Transformation
- Potential Difference and Emf of a Cell
- Measurement of Internal Resistance of a Cell
- Potentiometer
- Metre Bridge
- Wheatstone Bridge
- Kirchhoff’s Rules
- Cells in Series and in Parallel
- Cells, Emf, Internal Resistance
- Temperature Dependence of Resistance
- Combination of Resistors – Series and Parallel
- Resistivity of Various Materials
- Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity
- Electrical Power
- V-I Characteristics (Linear and Non-linear)
- Ohm's Law
- Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity
- Flow of Electric Charges in a Metallic Conductor
- Electric Current

##### Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

##### Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

##### Magnetism and Matter

- Introduction of Magnetism
- Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity
- Curie Law of Magnetism
- Magnetism and Gauss’s Law
- Hysteresis Loop
- Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet
- Magnetic Properties of Materials
- The Earth’s Magnetism
- The Bar Magnet
- Torque on a Magnetic Dipole (Bar Magnet) in a Uniform Magnetic Field
- Dipole in a Uniform External Field
- Magnetic Field Intensity Due to a Magnetic Dipole (Bar Magnet) Perpendicular to Its Axis
- Magnetic Field Intensity Due to a Magnetic Dipole (Bar Magnet) Along Its Axis
- Magnetic Dipole Moment of a Revolving Electron
- Current Loop as a Magnetic Dipole and Its Magnetic Dipole Moment
- Magnetic Substances

##### Moving Charges and Magnetism

- The Magnetic Dipole Moment of a Revolving Electron
- Circular Current Loop as a Magnetic Dipole
- Torque on a Rectangular Current Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field
- Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop
- Motion in a Magnetic Field
- Velocity Selector
- Solenoid and the Toroid - the Toroid
- Solenoid and the Toroid - the Solenoid
- Magnetic Diapole
- Moving Coil Galvanometer
- Torque on a Current Loop in Magnetic Field
- Force Between Two Parallel Currents, the Ampere
- Force on a Current - Carrying Conductor in a Uniform Magnetic Field
- Cyclotron
- Force on a Moving Charge in Uniform Magnetic and Electric Fields
- Straight and Toroidal Solenoids (Only Qualitative Treatment)
- Ampere’s Circuital Law
- Magnetic Field Due to a Current Element, Biot-Savart Law
- Oersted’s Experiment
- Magnetic Force

##### Electromagnetic Waves

##### Optics

##### Alternating Current

- Ac Voltage Applied to a Capacitor
- Ac Voltage Applied to an Inductor
- Representation of Ac Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors - Phasors
- Ac Voltage Applied to a Resistor
- Alternating Currents and Direct Currents
- Forced Oscillations and Resonance
- Transformers
- Power in Ac Circuit: the Power Factor
- Ac Voltage Applied to a Series Lcr Circuit
- LC Oscillations
- Reactance and Impedance
- Peak and Rms Value of Alternating Current Or Voltage
- Alternating Currents

##### Electromagnetic Induction

- Electromagnetic Induction
- Ac Generator
- Self-Inductance
- Energy Consideration: a Quantitative Study
- Motional Electromotive Force
- The Experiments of Faraday and Henry
- Magnetic Flux
- Faraday’s Law of Induction
- Mutual Inductance
- Eddy Currents
- Lenz’S Law and Conservation of Energy
- Induced Emf and Current
- Electromagnetic Induction

##### Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

##### Electromagnetic Waves

##### Atoms and Nuclei

##### Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

- Telescope
- The Eye
- Refraction Through a Prism
- Refraction by a Lens
- Snell’s Law
- Concave Mirror
- Rarer and Denser Medium
- Lensmaker's Formula
- Thin Lens Formula
- Lenses
- The Microscope
- Some Natural Phenomena Due to Sunlight
- Dispersion by a Prism
- Combination of Thin Lenses in Contact
- Power of a Lens
- Magnification
- Refraction at Spherical Surfaces
- Total Internal Reflection
- Refraction
- Ray Optics - Mirror Formula
- Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors
- Light Process and Photometry

##### Electronic Devices

##### Communication Systems

##### Wave Optics

- Introduction of Wave Optics
- The Validity of Ray Optics
- Seeing the Single Slit Diffraction Pattern
- The Single Slit
- The Doppler Effect
- Reflection of a Plane Wave by a Plane Surface
- Refraction at a Rarer Medium
- Refraction of a Plane Wave
- Refraction of Monochromatic Light
- Law of Malus
- Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves
- Principle of Superposition of Waves
- Corpuscular Theory
- Width of Central Maximum
- Polarisation
- Resolving Power of Microscope and Astronomical Telescope
- Interference
- Proof of Laws of Reflection and Refraction Using Huygen'S Principle
- Brewster's Law
- Plane Polarised Light
- Fraunhofer Diffraction Due to a Single Slit
- Coherent and Incoherent Sources and Sustained Interference of Light
- Interference of Light Waves and Young’S Experiment
- Reflection and Refraction of Plane Wave at a Plane Surface Using Wave Fronts
- Huygens Principle
- Speed of Light

##### Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

- Einstein’S Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation
- Particle Nature of Light: the Photon
- Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light
- Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
- Einstein’s Equation - Particle Nature of Light
- Electron Emission
- Davisson-Germer Experiment
- de-Broglie Relation
- Wave Nature of Matter
- Photoelectric Effect - Hallwachs’ and Lenard’S Observations
- Photoelectric Effect - Hertz’S Observations
- Dual Nature of Radiation

##### The Special Theory of Relativity

##### Nuclei

- Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion
- Nuclear Reactor
- Fission
- Introduction of Nuclear Energy
- Gamma Decay
- Beta Decay
- Nuclear Binding Energy
- Mass - Energy
- Size of the Nucleus
- Nuclear Fusion – Energy Generation in Stars
- Mass-Energy Relation and Mass Defect
- Law of Radioactive Decay
- Alpha Decay
- Introduction of Radioactivity
- Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus
- Nuclear Force

##### Atoms

- Atomic Spectra
- The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom
- De Broglie’S Explanation of Bohr’S Second Postulate of Quantisation
- Heisenberg and De Broglie Hypothesis
- Thompson Model
- Dalton's Atomic Theory
- Introduction of Atoms
- Hydrogen Spectrum
- Energy Levels
- Bohr’s Model for Hydrogen Atom
- Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’S Nuclear Model of Atom

##### Semiconductor Electronics - Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

- Integrated Circuits
- Feedback Amplifier and Transistor Oscillator
- Transistor as a Device
- Basic Transistor Circuit Configurations and Transistor Characteristics
- Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
- p-n Junction
- Intrinsic Semiconductor
- Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors
- Extrinsic Semiconductor
- Transistor Action
- Transistor: Structure and Action
- Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
- Transistor as an Amplifier (Ce-configuration)
- Transistor and Characteristics of a Transistor
- Semiconductor Diode
- Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator
- Special Purpose P-n Junction Diodes
- Diode as a Rectifier
- Energy Bands in Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators
- Concept of Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
- Triode

##### Communication Systems

- Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave
- Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave
- Basic Terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems
- Sinusoidal Waves
- Modulation and Its Necessity
- Amplitude Modulation
- Need for Modulation and Demodulation
- Satellite Communication
- Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
- Bandwidth of Transmission Medium
- Bandwidth of Signals
- Elements of a Communication System

##### The Special Theory of Relativity

#### notes

**OHM’S LAW**:-

Ohm’s Law states that the potential difference between two points is directly proportional to the electric current.

**V ****∝ ****I**

Or V/I=R . . .1

Or 1/I=R/V

Or I=V/R . . .2

Or V=IR . . .3

Where R is constant for the given conductor at a given temperature and called resistance. Resistance is the property of conductor which resists the flow of electric current through it.

**SI Unit:-**

SI unit of resistance is ohm. Ohm is denoted by Greek letter ‘Ω’.

R = `"V"/"I"`

If the potential difference across the two ends of a conductor is 1 V and the current through it is 1 A, then the resistance R, of the conductor is 1 Ω. That is,

1 ohm = `(1 "Volt")/ (1"Ampere")`

I = `"V"/"R"`

-It is obvious that the current through a resistor is inversely proportional to its resistance. If the resistance is doubled the current gets halved. In many practical cases it is necessary to increase or decrease the current in an electric circuit.

-A component used to regulate current without changing the voltage source is called variable resistance.

-In an electric circuit, a device called rheostat is often used to change the resistance in the circuit.

#### description

- Ohm's law
- Statement of Ohm's law
- Unit of resistance
- Conductance
- I-V graph
- Slope of I-V graph
- Limitation of Ohm's law