#### Topics

##### Integers

- Concept for Natural Numbers
- Concept for Whole Numbers
- Negative and Positive Numbers
- Concept of Integers
- Representation of Integers on the Number Line
- Concept for Ordering of Integers
- Addition of Integers
- Addition of Integers on Number line
- Subtraction of Integers
- Properties of Addition and Subtraction of Integers
- Multiplication of a Positive and a Negative Integers
- Multiplication of Two Negative Integers
- Product of Three Or More Negative Integers
- Closure Property of Multiplication of Integers
- Commutative Property of Multiplication of Integers
- Associative Property of Multiplication of Integers
- Distributive Property of Multiplication of Integers
- Multiplication of Integers with Zero
- Multiplicative Identity of Integers
- Making Multiplication Easier of Integers
- Division of Integers
- Properties of Division of Integers

##### Fractions and Decimals

- Concept of Fractions
- Types of Fraction
- Concept of Proper Fractions
- Improper Fraction and Mixed Fraction
- Concept for Equivalent Fractions
- Like and Unlike Fraction
- Comparing Fractions
- Addition of Fraction
- Subtraction of Fraction
- Multiplication of a Fraction by a Whole Number
- Fraction as an Operator 'Of'
- Multiplication of a Fraction by a Fraction
- Division of Fractions
- Concept for Reciprocal of a Fraction
- Concept of Decimal Numbers
- Multiplication of Decimal Numbers
- Multiplication of Decimal Numbers by 10, 100 and 1000
- Division of Decimal Numbers by 10, 100 and 1000
- Division of a Decimal Number by a Whole Number
- Division of a Decimal Number by Another Decimal Number

##### Data Handling

##### Simple Equations

##### Lines and Angles

- Concept of Points
- Concept of Line
- Concept of Line Segment
- Concept of Intersecting Lines
- Concept of Angle - Arms, Vertex, Interior and Exterior Region
- Complementary Angles
- Supplementary Angles
- Adjacent Angles
- Concept of Linear Pair
- Concept of Vertically Opposite Angles
- Concept of Intersecting Lines
- Parallel Lines
- Pairs of Lines - Transversal
- Pairs of Lines - Angles Made by a Transversal
- Pairs of Lines - Transversal of Parallel Lines
- Checking Parallel Lines

##### The Triangle and Its Properties

- Concept of Triangles - Sides, Angles, Vertices, Interior and Exterior of Triangle
- Classification of Triangles (On the Basis of Sides, and of Angles)
- Equilateral Triangle
- Isosceles Triangles
- Scalene Triangle
- Acute Angled Triangle
- Obtuse Angled Triangle
- Right Angled Triangle
- Median of a Triangle
- Altitudes of a Triangle
- Exterior Angle of a Triangle and Its Property
- Angle Sum Property of a Triangle
- Some Special Types of Triangles - Equilateral and Isosceles Triangles
- Sum of the Lengths of Two Sides of a Triangle
- Right-angled Triangles and Pythagoras Property

##### Congruence of Triangles

##### Comparing Quantities

- Concept of Ratio
- Concept of Equivalent Ratios
- Concept of Proportion
- Concept of Unitary Method
- Concept of Percent and Percentage
- Converting Fractional Numbers to Percentage
- Converting Decimals to Percentage
- Converting Percentages to Fractions
- Converting Percentages to Decimals
- Estimation in Percentages
- Interpreting Percentages
- Converting Percentages to “How Many”
- Ratios to Percents
- Increase Or Decrease as Percent
- Concepts of Cost Price, Selling Price, Total Cost Price, and Profit and Loss, Discount, Overhead Expenses and GST
- Profit or Loss as a Percentage
- Concept of Principal, Interest, Amount, and Simple Interest

##### Rational Numbers

- Rational Numbers
- Equivalent Rational Number
- Positive and Negative Rational Numbers
- Rational Numbers on a Number Line
- Rational Numbers in Standard Form
- Comparison of Rational Numbers
- Rational Numbers Between Two Rational Numbers
- Addition of Rational Number
- Subtraction of Rational Number
- Multiplication of Rational Numbers
- Division of Rational Numbers

##### Practical Geometry

- Construction of a Line Parallel to a Given Line, Through a Point Not on the Line
- Construction of Triangles
- Constructing a Triangle When the Length of Its Three Sides Are Known (SSS Criterion)
- Constructing a Triangle When the Lengths of Two Sides and the Measure of the Angle Between Them Are Known. (SAS Criterion)
- Constructing a Triangle When the Measures of Two of Its Angles and the Length of the Side Included Between Them is Given. (ASA Criterion)
- Constructing a Right-angled Triangle When the Length of One Leg and Its Hypotenuse Are Given (RHS Criterion)

##### Perimeter and Area

- Mensuration
- Concept of Perimeter
- Perimeter of a Rectangle
- Perimeter of Squares
- Perimeter of Triangles
- Perimeter of Polygon
- Concept of Area
- Area of Square
- Area of Rectangle
- Triangles as Parts of Rectangles and Square
- Generalising for Other Congruent Parts of Rectangles
- Area of a Triangle
- Area of a Parallelogram
- Circumference of a Circle
- Area of Circle
- Conversion of Units
- Problems based on Perimeter and Area
- Problems based on Perimeter and Area

##### Algebraic Expressions

- Algebraic Expressions
- Terms, Factors and Coefficients of Expression
- Like and Unlike Terms
- Types of Algebraic Expressions as Monomials, Binomials, Trinomials, and Polynomials
- Addition of Algebraic Expressions
- Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions
- Evaluation of Algebraic Expressions by Substituting a Value for the Variable.
- Use of Variables in Common Rules

##### Exponents and Powers

- Concept of Exponents
- Multiplying Powers with the Same Base
- Dividing Powers with the Same Base
- Taking Power of a Power
- Multiplying Powers with Different Base and Same Exponents
- Dividing Powers with Different Base and Same Exponents
- Numbers with Exponent Zero, One, Negative Exponents
- Miscellaneous Examples Using the Laws of Exponents
- Decimal Number System Using Exponents and Powers
- Expressing Large Numbers in the Standard Form

##### Symmetry

##### Visualizing Solid Shapes

- Plane Figures and Solid Shapes
- Faces, Edges and Vertices
- Nets for Building 3-d Shapes - Cube, Cuboids, Cylinders, Cones, Pyramid, and Prism
- Drawing Solids on a Flat Surface - Oblique Sketches
- Drawing Solids on a Flat Surface - Isometric Sketches
- Visualising Solid Objects
- Viewing Different Sections of a Solid

#### definition

**ASA Congruence criterion: **If under a correspondence, two angles and the included side of a triangle are equal to two corresponding angles and the included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

#### notes

**ASA Congruence criterion:**

If under a correspondence, two angles and the included side of a triangle are equal to two corresponding angles and the included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

Which congruence criterion do you use in the following?

**Given:**

∠MLN = ∠FGH

∠NML = ∠GFH

ML = FG

So, ∆LMN ≅ ∆GFH

**Solution: **ASA Congruence criterion, as two angles and the side included between these angles of ΔLMN, are equal to two angles and the side included between these angles of ΔGFH.

#### Example

By applying the ASA congruence rule, it is to be established that ∆ABC ≅ ∆QRP and it is given that BC = RP. What additional information is needed to establish the congruence?

For the ASA congruence rule, we need the two angles between which the two sides BC and RP are included. So, the additional information is as follows:

∠B = ∠R and ∠C = ∠P.

#### Example

In Fig, can you use the ASA congruence rule and conclude that ∆AOC ≅ ∆BOD?

In the two triangles AOC and BOD, ∠C = ∠D..................(each 70° )

Also, ∠AOC = ∠BOD = 30°........................(vertically opposite angles)

So, ∠A of ∆AOC =180° – (70° + 30°) = 80°..................(using angle sum property of a triangle)

Similarly, ∠B of ∆BOD =180° – (70° + 30°) = 80°

Thus, we have ∠A =∠B, AC = BD, and ∠C = ∠D

Now, side AC is between ∠A and ∠C and side BD is between ∠B and ∠D.

So, by ASA congruence rule, ∆AOC ≅ ∆BOD.

#### Example

Given below are measurements of some parts of two triangles. Examine whether the two triangles are congruent or not, by the ASA congruence rule. In the case of congruence, write it in symbolic form.

∆DEF, ∠D = 60º, ∠F = 80º, DF = 6 cm.

∆PQR, ∠Q = 60º, ∠R = 80º, QP = 6 cm.

∠D = ∠Q

∠F = ∠R

Side DF = Side PQ

So, ∆DEF ≅ ∆PQR.......(ASA congruence criterion)

#### theorem

**Theorem (ASA congruence rule) :** Two triangles are congruent if two angles and the included side of one triangle are equal to two angles and the included side of other triangle. **Proof :** We are given two triangles ABC and DEF in which:

∠ B = ∠ E, ∠ C = ∠ F

and BC = EF

We need to prove that ∆ ABC ≅ ∆ DEF

For proving the congruence of the two triangles see that three cases arise.

**Case (i) :** Let AB = DE in following fig.

You may observe that

AB = DE (Assumed)

∠ B = ∠ E (Given)

BC = EF (Given)

So, ∆ ABC ≅ ∆ DEF (By SAS rule)

**Case (ii) : **

Let if possible AB > DE. So, we can take a point P on AB such that PB = DE. Now consider ∆ PBC and ∆ DEF in following fig.

Observe that in ∆ PBC and ∆ DEF,

PB = DE (By construction)

∠ B = ∠ E (Given)

BC = EF (Given)

So, we can conclude that:

∆ PBC ≅ ∆ DEF, by the SAS axiom for congruence.

Since the triangles are congruent, their corresponding parts will be equal.

So, ∠ PCB = ∠ DFE

But, we are given that

∠ ACB = ∠ DFE So, ∠ ACB = ∠ PCB

This is possible only if P coincides with A.

or, BA = ED

So, ∆ ABC ≅ ∆ DEF (by SAS axiom)

**Case (iii) :** If AB < DE, we can choose a point M on DE such that ME = AB and repeating the arguments as given in Case (ii), we can conclude that AB = DE and so, ∆ ABC ≅ ∆ DEF.

You know that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is 180°. So if two pairs of angles are equal, the third pair is also equal (180° – sum of equal angles).

So, two triangles are congruent if any two pairs of angles and one pair of corresponding sides are equal. We may call it as the AAS Congruence Rule.