Topics
Rational Numbers
- Concept of Rational Numbers
- Closure Property of Rational Numbers
- Commutative Property of Rational Numbers
- Associative Property of Rational Numbers
- Distributive Property of Multiplication Over Addition for Rational Numbers
- Identity of Addition and Multiplication of Rational Numbers
- Negative Or Additive Inverse of Rational Numbers
- Reciprocal Or Multiplicative Inverse of Rational Numbers
- Rational Numbers on a Number Line
- Rational Numbers Between Two Rational Numbers
Linear Equations in One Variable
- The Idea of a Variable
- Expressions with Variables
- Concept of Equation
- Balancing an Equation
- The Solution of an Equation
- Linear Equation in One Variable
- Solving Equations Which Have Linear Expressions on One Side and Numbers on the Other Side
- Some Applications Solving Equations Which Have Linear Expressions on One Side and Numbers on the Other Side
- Solving Equations Having the Variable on Both Sides
- Some More Applications on the Basis of Solving Equations Having the Variable on Both Sides
- Reducing Equations to Simpler Form
- Equations Reducible to the Linear Form
Understanding Quadrilaterals
- Concept of Curves
- Different Types of Curves - Closed Curve, Open Curve, Simple Curve.
- Concept of Polygons - Side, Vertex, Adjacent Sides, Adjacent Vertices and Diagonal
- Classification of Polygons - Regular Polygon, Irregular Polygon, Convex Polygon, Concave Polygon, Simple Polygon and Complex Polygon
- Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
- Interior Angles of a Polygon
- Exterior Angles of a Polygon and Its Property
- Concept of Quadrilaterals - Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
- Properties of Trapezium
- Properties of Kite
- Properties of a Parallelogram
- Properties of Rhombus
- Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
- Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
- Property: The adjacent angles in a parallelogram are supplementary.
- Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
- Property: The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular bisectors of one another.
- Property: The Diagonals of a Rectangle Are of Equal Length.
- Properties of Rectangle
- Properties of a Square
- Property: The diagonals of a square are perpendicular bisectors of each other.
Practical Geometry
- Introduction to Practical Geometry
- Constructing a Quadrilateral When the Lengths of Four Sides and a Diagonal Are Given
- Constructing a Quadrilateral When Two Diagonals and Three Sides Are Given
- Constructing a Quadrilateral When Two Adjacent Sides and Three Angles Are Known
- Constructing a Quadrilateral When Three Sides and Two Included Angles Are Given
- Some Special Cases
Data Handling
- Concept of Data Handling
- Interpretation of a Pictograph
- Interpretation of Bar Graphs
- Drawing a Bar Graph
- Interpretation of a Double Bar Graph
- Drawing a Double Bar Graph
- Organisation of Data
- Frequency Distribution Table
- Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms
- Concept of Pie Graph (Or a Circle-graph)
- Interpretation of Pie Diagram
- Chance and Probability - Chance
- Basic Ideas of Probability
Squares and Square Roots
- Concept of Square Number
- Properties of Square Numbers
- Some More Interesting Patterns of Square Number
- Finding the Square of a Number
- Concept of Square Roots
- Finding Square Root Through Repeated Subtraction
- Finding Square Root Through Prime Factorisation
- Finding Square Root by Division Method
- Square Root of Decimal Numbers
- Estimating Square Root
Cubes and Cube Roots
Comparing Quantities
- Concept of Ratio
- Concept of Percent and Percentage
- Increase Or Decrease as Percent
- Concept of Discount
- Estimation in Percentages
- Concepts of Cost Price, Selling Price, Total Cost Price, and Profit and Loss, Discount, Overhead Expenses and GST
- Sales Tax, Value Added Tax, and Good and Services Tax
- Concept of Principal, Interest, Amount, and Simple Interest
- Concept of Compound Interest
- Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest
- Rate Compounded Annually Or Half Yearly (Semi Annually)
- Applications of Compound Interest Formula
Algebraic Expressions and Identities
- Algebraic Expressions
- Terms, Factors and Coefficients of Expression
- Types of Algebraic Expressions as Monomials, Binomials, Trinomials, and Polynomials
- Like and Unlike Terms
- Addition of Algebraic Expressions
- Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions
- Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions
- Multiplying Monomial by Monomials
- Multiplying a Monomial by a Binomial
- Multiplying a Monomial by a Trinomial
- Multiplying a Binomial by a Binomial
- Multiplying a Binomial by a Trinomial
- Concept of Identity
- Expansion of (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
- Expansion of (a - b)2 = a2 - 2ab + b2
- Expansion of (a + b)(a - b)
- Expansion of (x + a)(x + b)
Visualizing Solid Shapes
Mensuration
Exponents and Powers
Direct and Inverse Proportions
Factorization
- Factors and Multiples
- Factorising Algebraic Expressions
- Factorisation by Taking Out Common Factors
- Factorisation by Regrouping Terms
- Factorisation Using Identities
- Factors of the Form (x + a)(x + b)
- Dividing a Monomial by a Monomial
- Dividing a Polynomial by a Monomial
- Dividing a Polynomial by a Polynomial
- Concept of Find the Error
Introduction to Graphs
- Concept of Bar Graph
- Interpretation of Bar Graphs
- Drawing a Bar Graph
- Concept of Double Bar Graph
- Interpretation of a Double Bar Graph
- Drawing a Double Bar Graph
- Concept of Pie Graph (Or a Circle-graph)
- Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms
- Concept of a Line Graph
- Linear Graphs
- Linear Graphs
- Some Application of Linear Graphs
Playing with Numbers
notes
Expressions with Variables:
These expressions are formed from numbers like 2, 3, 4, 10, 100, and so on. To form expressions we use all the four number operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
For example, to form (2 × 10) + 3, we have multiplied 2 by 10 and then added 3 to the product.
Examples of some of the other arithmetic expressions are (– 3 × 40) + 5, (5 × 7) – (3 × 4 – 7), etc.
We know that variables can take different values; they have no fixed value. But they are numbers. That is why as in the case of numbers, operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can be done on them.
One important point must be noted regarding the expressions containing variables. A number expression like (4 × 3) + 5 can be immediately evaluated as (4 × 3) + 5 = 12 + 5 = 17
But an expression like (4x + 5), which contains the variable x, cannot be evaluated. Only if x is given some value, an expression like (4x + 5) can be evaluated. For example, when x = 3, 4x + 5 = (4 × 3) + 5 = 17 as found above.
Expression |
How formed? |
3 x + 2 | first x multiplied by 3, then 2 added to the product |
– 5 q | q multiplied by –5 |
y multiplied by 10 and then 7 added to the product | 10 y + 7 |
n multiplied by 2 and 1 subtracted from the product | 2 n – 1 |
y divided by 8 | `y/8` |
Using Expressions Practically:
Situation (described in ordinary language) |
Variable |
Statements using ordinary language) |
1. Sarita has 10 more marbles than Ameena. | Let Ameena have x marbles. | Sarita has (x + 10) marbles. |
2. Balu is 3 years younger than Raju. | Let Raju’s age be x years. | Balu’s age is (x - 3) years. |
3. Bikash is twice as old as Raju. | Let Raju’s age be x years. | Bikash’s age is 2x years. |
4. Raju’s father’s age is 2 years more than 3 times Raju’s age. | Let Raju’s age be x years. | Raju’s father’s age is (3x + 2) years. |