Topics
Physical World and Measurement
Physical World
Units and Measurements
 International System of Units
 Measurement of Length
 Measurement of Mass
 Measurement of Time
 Accuracy Precision of Instruments and Errors in Measurement
 Significant Figures
 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
 Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations
 Dimensional Analysis and Its Applications
 Need for Measurement
 Units of Measurement
 Fundamental and Derived Units
 Length, Mass and Time Measurements
 Introduction of Units and Measurements
Kinematics
Motion in a Plane
 Scalars and Vectors
 Multiplication of Vectors by a Real Number
 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors — Graphical Method
 Resolution of Vectors
 Vector Addition – Analytical Method
 Motion in a Plane
 Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration
 Projectile Motion
 Uniform Circular Motion
 General Vectors and Their Notations
 Motion in a Plane  Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
 Rectangular Components
 Scalar and Vector Product of Vectors
 Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions
 Cases of Uniform Velocity
 Cases of Uniform Acceleration Projectile Motion
 Motion in a Plane  Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration
 Angular Velocity
 Introduction
Motion in a Straight Line
 Position, Path Length and Displacement
 Average Velocity and Average Speed
 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
 Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
 Acceleration
 Relative Velocity
 Elementary Concepts of Differentiation and Integration for Describing Motion
 Uniform and NonUniform Motion
 Uniformly Accelerated Motion
 Positiontime, Velocitytime and Accelerationtime Graphs
 Motion in a Straight Line  Positiontime Graph
 Relations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion (Graphical Treatment)
 Introduction
Laws of Motion
 Aristotle’s Fallacy
 The Law of Inertia
 Newton's First Law of Motion
 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
 Conservation of Momentum
 Equilibrium of a Particle
 Common Forces in Mechanics
 Circular Motion and Its Characteristics
 Solving Problems in Mechanics
 Static and Kinetic Friction
 Laws of Friction
 Inertia
 Intuitive Concept of Force
 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion  Centripetal Force
 Examples of Circular Motion (Vehicle on a Level Circular Road, Vehicle on a Banked Road)
 Lubrication  (Laws of Motion)
 Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum and Its Applications
 Rolling Friction
 Introduction
Work, Energy and Power
 Introduction of Work, Energy and Power
 Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: the WorkEnergy Theorem
 Kinetic Energy
 Work Done by a Constant Force and a Variable Force
 Concept of Work
 The Concept of Potential Energy
 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy
 Potential Energy of a Spring
 Various Forms of Energy : the Law of Conservation of Energy
 Power
 Collisions
 Non  Conservative Forces  Motion in a Vertical Circle
Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
System of Particles and Rotational Motion
 Motion  Rigid Body
 Centre of Mass
 Motion of Centre of Mass
 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
 Vector Product of Two Vectors
 Angular Velocity and Its Relation with Linear Velocity
 Torque and Angular Momentum
 Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies
 Moment of Inertia
 Theorems of Perpendicular and Parallel Axes
 Kinematics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
 Dynamics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
 Angular Momentum in Case of Rotation About a Fixed Axis
 Rolling Motion
 Momentum Conservation and Centre of Mass Motion
 Centre of Mass of a Rigid Body
 Centre of Mass of a Uniform Rod
 Rigid Body Rotation
 Equations of Rotational Motion
 Comparison of Linear and Rotational Motions
 Values of Moments of Inertia for Simple Geometrical Objects (No Derivation)
Gravitation
 Kepler’s Laws
 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
 The Gravitational Constant
 Acceleration Due to Gravity of the Earth
 Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Surface of Earth
 Acceleration Due to Gravity and Its Variation with Altitude and Depth
 Gravitational Potential Energy
 Escape Speed
 Earth Satellites
 Energy of an Orbiting Satellite
 Geostationary and Polar Satellites
 Weightlessness
 Escape Velocity
 Orbital Velocity of a Satellite
Properties of Bulk Matter
Mechanical Properties of Fluids
 Thrust and Pressure
 Transmission of Pressure in Liquids: Pascal’s Law
 Variation of Pressure with Depth
 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
 Hydraulic Machines
 STREAMLINE FLOW
 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
 Viscous Force Or Viscosity
 Reynolds Number
 Surface Tension
 Effect of Gravity on Fluid Pressure
 Terminal Velocity
 Critical Velocity
 Excess of Pressure Across a Curved Surface
 Introduction to Fluid Machanics
 Archimedes' Principle
 Stokes' Law
 Equation of Continuity
 Torricelli'S Law
Thermal Properties of Matter
 Heat and Temperature
 Measurement of Temperature
 Idealgas Equation and Absolute Temperature
 Thermal Expansion
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Calorimetry
 Change of State  Latent Heat Capacity
 Conduction
 Convection
 Radiation
 Newton’s Law of Cooling
 Qualitative Ideas of Blackbody Radiation
 Wein'S Displacement Law
 Stefan's Law
 Anomalous Expansion of Water
 Liquids and Gases
 Thermal Expansion of Solids
 Green House Effect
Mechanical Properties of Solids
Thermodynamics
 Thermal Equilibrium
 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
 Heat, Internal Energy and Work
 First Law of Thermodynamics
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State
 Thermodynamic Process
 Heat Engines
 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
 Carnot Engine
 Isothermal Processes
 Adiabatic Processes
Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases
Kinetic Theory
 Molecular Nature of Matter
 Gases and Its Characteristics
 Equation of State of a Perfect Gas
 Work Done in Compressing a Gas
 Introduction of Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
 Interpretation of Temperature in Kinetic Theory
 Law of Equipartition of Energy
 Specific Heat Capacities  Gases
 Mean Free Path
 Kinetic Theory of Gases  Concept of Pressure
 Kinetic Theory of Gases Assumptions
 rms Speed of Gas Molecules
 Degrees of Freedom
 Avogadro's Number
Oscillations and Waves
Oscillations
 Periodic and Oscillatory Motions
 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion
 Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
 Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
 Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
 Displacement as a Function of Time
 Periodic Functions
 Oscillations  Frequency
Waves
notes
Hydraulic Machines:
Pascal’s law for transmission of fluid pressure states that the pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted undiminished and equally in all directions throughout the fluid.
The above law means that if we consider a fluid that is restricted within a specific region in space and if the volume of the fluid doesn’t change with the pressure, then the amount of pressure exerted will be the same as the amount of pressure transmitted.
A number of devices, such as hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes, are based on Pascal’s law. In these devices, fluids are used for transmitting pressure. In a hydraulic lift, as shown in Fig, two pistons are separated by the space filled with a liquid. A piston of small crosssection `"A"_1` is used to exert a force `"F"_1` directly on the liquid. The pressure `"P" = "F"_1/"A"_1` is transmitted throughout the liquid to the larger cylinder attached with a larger piston of area `"A"_2`, which results in an upward force of P × `"A"_2`. Therefore, the piston is capable of supporting a large force (large weight of, say a car or a truck placed on the platform `"F"_2 = "PA"_2 = "F"_1/"A"_1"A"_2`. By changing the force at `"A"_1` the platform can be moved up or down. Thus the applied force can be increased by a factor of `"A"_2/"A"_1` and this factor is the mechanical advantage of the device.
Hydraulic brakes work on the principle of Pascal’s law.

According to this law whenever pressure is applied on fluid it travels uniformly in all the directions.

Therefore when we apply force on a small piston, the pressure gets created which is transmitted through the fluid to a larger piston. As a result of this larger force, uniform braking is applied on all four wheels.

As braking force is generated due to hydraulic pressure, they are known as hydraulic brakes.

Liquids are used instead of gas as liquids are incompressible.
Construction

The fluid in the hydraulic brake is known as brake fluid.

It consists of a master cylinder, fourwheel cylinders, and pipes carrying brake fluid from the master cylinder to wheel cylinders.

The master cylinder consists of a piston that is connected to pedal through the connecting rod.

The wheel cylinders consist of two pistons between which fluid is filled.

Each wheel brake consists of a cylinder brake drum. This drum is mounted on the inner side of the wheel. The drum revolves with the wheel.

Two brake shoes that are mounted inside the drum remain stationary.
Working

When we press the brake pedal, the piston in the master cylinder forces the brake fluid through a linkage.

As a result, pressure increases and gets transmitted to all the pipes and to all the wheel cylinders according to Pascal’s law.

Because of this pressure, both the pistons move out and transmit the braking force on all the wheels.
Advantages:

Equal braking effort to all the four wheels.

Less rate of wear due to the absence of joints.

By just changing the size of one piston and cylinder, the force can be increased or decreased.
Disadvantages:

Leakage of brake fluid spoils the brake shoes.

Even the slightest presence of air pockets can spoil the whole system.