Topics
Units and Measurements
 Introduction of Units and Measurements
 System of Units
 Measurement of Length
 Measurement of Mass
 Measurement of Time
 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis
 Accuracy, Precision and Uncertainty in Measurement
 Errors in Measurements
 Significant Figures
Mathematical Methods
 Vector Analysis
 Vector Operations
 Resolution of Vectors
 Multiplication of Vectors
 Introduction to Calculus
Motion in a Plane
 Introduction to Motion in a Plane
 Rectilinear Motion
 Motion in Two DimensionsMotion in a Plane
 Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)
Laws of Motion
 Introduction to Laws of Motion
 Aristotle’s Fallacy
 Newton’s Laws of Motion
 Inertial and Noninertial Frames of Reference
 Types of Forces
 Work Energy Theorem
 Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum
 Collisions
 Impulse of Force
 Rotational Analogue of a Force  Moment of a Force Or Torque
 Couple and Its Torque
 Mechanical Equilibrium
 Centre of Mass
 Centre of Gravity
Gravitation
 Introduction to Gravitation
 Kepler’s Laws
 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
 Measurement of the Gravitational Constant (G)
 Acceleration Due to Gravity (Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration)
 Variation in the Acceleration Due to Gravity with Altitude, Depth, Latitude and Shape
 Gravitational Potential and Potential Energy
 Earth Satellites
Mechanical Properties of Solids
 Introduction to Mechanical Properties of Solids
 Elastic Behavior of Solids
 Stress and Strain
 Hooke’s Law
 Elastic Modulus
 Stressstrain Curve
 Strain Energy
 Hardness
 Friction in Solids
Thermal Properties of Matter
 Introduction to Thermal Properties of Matter
 Heat and Temperature
 Measurement of Temperature
 Absolute Temperature and Ideal Gas Equation
 Thermal Expansion
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Calorimetry
 Change of State
 Heat Transfer
 Newton’s Law of Cooling
Sound
 Introduction to Sound
 Types of Waves
 Common Properties of All Waves
 Transverse Waves and Longitudinal Waves
 Mathematical Expression of a Wave
 The Speed of Travelling Waves
 Principle of Superposition of Waves
 Echo, Reverberation and Acoustics
 Qualities of Sound
 Doppler Effect
Optics
 Introduction to Ray Optics
 Nature of Light
 Ray Optics Or Geometrical Optics
 Reflection
 Refraction
 Total Internal Reflection
 Refraction at a Spherical Surface and Lenses
 Dispersion of Light and Prisms
 Some Natural Phenomena Due to Sunlight
 Defects of Lenses (Aberrations of Optical Images)
 Optical Instruments
 Optical Instruments: Simple Microscope
 Optical Instruments: Compound Microscope
 Optical Instruments: Telescope
Electrostatics
 Introduction to Electrostatics
 Electric Charges
 Basic Properties of Electric Charge
 Coulomb’s Law  Force Between Two Point Charges
 Principle of Superposition
 Electric Field
 Electric Flux
 Gauss’s Law
 Electric Dipole
 Continuous Distribution of Charges
Electric Current Through Conductors
 Electric Current
 Flow of Current Through a Conductor
 Drift Speed
 Ohm's Law (V = IR)
 Limitations of Ohm’s Law
 Electrical Power
 Resistors
 Specific Resistance (Resistivity)
 Variation of Resistance with Temperature
 Electromotive Force (emf)
 Combination of Cells in Series and in Parallel
 Types of Cells
 Combination of Resistors  Series and Parallel
Magnetism
 Introduction to Magnetism
 Magnetic Lines of Force and Magnetic Field
 The Bar Magnet
 Gauss' Law of Magnetism
 The Earth’s Magnetism
Electromagnetic Waves and Communication System
 EM Wave
 Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Propagation of EM Waves
 Introduction to Communication System
 Modulation
Semiconductors
 Introduction to Semiconductors
 Electrical Conduction in Solids
 Band Theory of Solids
 Intrinsic Semiconductor
 Extrinsic Semiconductor
 pn Junction
 A pn Junction Diode
 Semiconductor Devices
 Applications of Semiconductors and Pn Junction Diode
 Thermistor
 Stress
 Types of stress
1) Longitudinal stress: Tensile stress and Compressive stress
2) Hydraulic or volume stress
3) Shear or tangential stress
4) Breaking stress  Strain
 Types of strain
1) Longitudinal (tensile or linear) strain
2) Volume strain
3) Shear strain
Notes
Stress & Strain:
stress:
The internal restoring force setup per unit area of crosssection of the deformed body is called stress.
If a body gets deformed under the action of an external force, then at each section of the body an internal force of the reaction is set up which tends to restore the body into its original state.
`"Stress" = "Applied Force"/"Area"`
unit: `"N"//m^2` or pascal.
Its dimensional formula is `["ML"^1"T"^2]`
Types of stress:
There are different types of stress
1. Longitudinal stress: if deforming force is applied normal to the area of crosssection, then the stress is called longitudinal stress. It is further categorized into two types.
(a) Tensile stress: if there is an increase in the length of the object under the effect of applied force, then stress is called tensile stress.
(b) Compressional stress: If there is a decrease in the length of the object under the effect of applied force, then stress is called compressional stress.
2. Tangential or shearing stress:
If deforming force acts tangentially to the surface of a body, it produces a change in the shape of the body. The tangential force applied per unit area is called tangential stress.
3.Normal stress:
If a body is subjected to a uniform force from all sides, then the corresponding stress is called hydrostatic stress.
Strain:
When a deforming force acts on a body, the body undergoes a change in its shape and size. The fractional change in configuration is called strain.
Strain = change in dimension / original dimension
It has no unit and it is a dimensionless quantity.
Types of strain:
1. Longitudinal strain:
Change in length to the original length of the body due to the longitudinal stress.

If we apply longitudinal stress to a body either the body elongates or it compresses this change along the length of the body. This change in length is measured by Longitudinal Strain.

Longitudinal Strain = `(Delta"L")/"L"`

Strain occurs as a result of stress.
2. Volumetric strain:
Volume strain is defined as the ratio of change in volume to the original volume as a result of the hydraulic stress.

When the stress is applied by a fluid on a body there is a change in the volume of the body without changing the shape of the body.

Volume strain = `"ΔV"/"V"`
Therefore, Change in the volume ΔV= V’ – V

Conclusion:  Deformation is measured using strain.

Consider a cube whose initial volume is V.

When the cube is subjected to stress there will be a change in the volume but the shape will not change.

3. Shearing strain = `(Deltax)/"L" = tan theta` ... where theta is the angular displacement of the cylinder
Shearing strain is the measure of the relative displacement of the opposite faces of the body as a result of shearing stress.

If we apply force parallel to the crosssectional area because of which there was relative displacement between the opposite faces of the body.

Shearing strain measures to what extent the two opposite faces got displaced relative to each other.
Shearing strain= `x/"L"`

In terms of tan θ,

Shearing strain = tan θ = `x/L`

tan θ is equal to θ (as θ is very small)

Therefore, `x/L=theta`
