Topics
Units and Measurements
 Introduction of Units and Measurements
 System of Units
 Measurement of Length
 Measurement of Mass
 Measurement of Time
 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis
 Accuracy, Precision and Uncertainty in Measurement
 Errors in Measurements
 Significant Figures
Mathematical Methods
 Vector Analysis
 Vector Operations
 Resolution of Vectors
 Multiplication of Vectors
 Introduction to Calculus
Motion in a Plane
 Introduction to Motion in a Plane
 Rectilinear Motion
 Motion in Two DimensionsMotion in a Plane
 Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)
Laws of Motion
 Introduction to Laws of Motion
 Aristotle’s Fallacy
 Newton’s Laws of Motion
 Inertial and Noninertial Frames of Reference
 Types of Forces
 Work Energy Theorem
 Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum
 Collisions
 Impulse of Force
 Rotational Analogue of a Force  Moment of a Force Or Torque
 Couple and Its Torque
 Mechanical Equilibrium
 Centre of Mass
 Centre of Gravity
Gravitation
 Introduction to Gravitation
 Kepler’s Laws
 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
 Measurement of the Gravitational Constant (G)
 Acceleration Due to Gravity (Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration)
 Variation in the Acceleration Due to Gravity with Altitude, Depth, Latitude and Shape
 Gravitational Potential and Potential Energy
 Earth Satellites
Mechanical Properties of Solids
 Introduction to Mechanical Properties of Solids
 Elastic Behavior of Solids
 Stress and Strain
 Hooke’s Law
 Elastic Modulus
 Stressstrain Curve
 Strain Energy
 Hardness
 Friction in Solids
Thermal Properties of Matter
 Introduction to Thermal Properties of Matter
 Heat and Temperature
 Measurement of Temperature
 Absolute Temperature and Ideal Gas Equation
 Thermal Expansion
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Calorimetry
 Change of State
 Heat Transfer
 Newton’s Law of Cooling
Sound
 Introduction to Sound
 Types of Waves
 Common Properties of All Waves
 Transverse Waves and Longitudinal Waves
 Mathematical Expression of a Wave
 The Speed of Travelling Waves
 Principle of Superposition of Waves
 Echo, Reverberation and Acoustics
 Qualities of Sound
 Doppler Effect
Optics
 Introduction to Ray Optics
 Nature of Light
 Ray Optics Or Geometrical Optics
 Reflection
 Refraction
 Total Internal Reflection
 Refraction at a Spherical Surface and Lenses
 Dispersion of Light and Prisms
 Some Natural Phenomena Due to Sunlight
 Defects of Lenses (Aberrations of Optical Images)
 Optical Instruments
 Optical Instruments: Simple Microscope
 Optical Instruments: Compound Microscope
 Optical Instruments: Telescope
Electrostatics
 Introduction to Electrostatics
 Electric Charges
 Basic Properties of Electric Charge
 Coulomb’s Law  Force Between Two Point Charges
 Principle of Superposition
 Electric Field
 Electric Flux
 Gauss’s Law
 Electric Dipole
 Continuous Distribution of Charges
Electric Current Through Conductors
 Electric Current
 Flow of Current Through a Conductor
 Drift Speed
 Ohm's Law (V = IR)
 Limitations of Ohm’s Law
 Electrical Power
 Resistors
 Specific Resistance (Resistivity)
 Variation of Resistance with Temperature
 Electromotive Force (emf)
 Combination of Cells in Series and in Parallel
 Types of Cells
 Combination of Resistors  Series and Parallel
Magnetism
 Introduction to Magnetism
 Magnetic Lines of Force and Magnetic Field
 The Bar Magnet
 Gauss' Law of Magnetism
 The Earth’s Magnetism
Electromagnetic Waves and Communication System
 EM Wave
 Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Propagation of EM Waves
 Introduction to Communication System
 Modulation
Semiconductors
 Introduction to Semiconductors
 Electrical Conduction in Solids
 Band Theory of Solids
 Intrinsic Semiconductor
 Extrinsic Semiconductor
 pn Junction
 A pn Junction Diode
 Semiconductor Devices
 Applications of Semiconductors and Pn Junction Diode
 Thermistor
Notes
StressStrain Curve:
It is a curve between stress and strain.

A graph is plotted between the stress (which is equal in magnitude to the applied force per unit area) and the strain produced.

The graph helps us to understand how a given material deforms with increasing loads.

The curve between O and A is a straight line. This means stress is directly ∝ to strain. In this region Hooke’s Law is applicable.

In this region, the material behaves like an elastic body.

In the region from A to B, stress, and strain are not directly proportional. But still, the material returns to its original dimension after the force is removed. They exhibit elastic properties.

The point B in the curve is known as yield point (also known as elastic limit) which means till this point the material will be elastic in behavior and the stress corresponding to point B is known as yield strength (Sy) of the material.

The region between O and B is called an Elastic region.

From point B to point D, we can see that strain increases rapidly even for a small change in stress.

Even if we remove the force the material does not come back to its original position. At this point, stress is zero but the strain is not zero as the body has changed its shape.

The material has undergone plastic deformation.

The material is said to be a permanent set.

The point D on the graph is known as the ultimate tensile strength (Su) of the material.

From D to E we can see that stress decreases even if strain increases.

Finally at point E fracture occurs. This means the body breaks.
Related QuestionsVIEW ALL [3]
The stressstrain graphs for two materials are shown in figure (assume same scale).
Material (i) 
Material (i) 
 Material (ii) is more elastic than material (i) and hence material (ii) is more brittle.
 Material (i) and (ii) have the same elasticity and the same brittleness.
 Material (ii) is elastic over a larger region of strain as compared to (i).
 Material (ii) is more brittle than material (i).
The stressstrain graphs for two materials are shown in figure (assume same scale).
Material (i) 
Material (i) 
 Material (ii) is more elastic than material (i) and hence material (ii) is more brittle.
 Material (i) and (ii) have the same elasticity and the same brittleness.
 Material (ii) is elastic over a larger region of strain as compared to (i).
 Material (ii) is more brittle than material (i).