Topics
Units and Measurements
 Introduction of Units and Measurements
 System of Units
 Measurement of Length
 Measurement of Mass
 Measurement of Time
 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis
 Accuracy, Precision and Uncertainty in Measurement
 Errors in Measurements
 Significant Figures
Mathematical Methods
 Vector Analysis
 Vector Operations
 Resolution of Vectors
 Multiplication of Vectors
 Introduction to Calculus
Motion in a Plane
 Introduction to Motion in a Plane
 Rectilinear Motion
 Motion in Two DimensionsMotion in a Plane
 Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)
Laws of Motion
 Introduction to Laws of Motion
 Aristotle’s Fallacy
 Newton’s Laws of Motion
 Inertial and Noninertial Frames of Reference
 Types of Forces
 Work Energy Theorem
 Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum
 Collisions
 Impulse of Force
 Rotational Analogue of a Force  Moment of a Force Or Torque
 Couple and Its Torque
 Mechanical Equilibrium
 Centre of Mass
 Centre of Gravity
Gravitation
 Introduction to Gravitation
 Kepler’s Laws
 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
 Measurement of the Gravitational Constant (G)
 Acceleration Due to Gravity (Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration)
 Variation in the Acceleration Due to Gravity with Altitude, Depth, Latitude and Shape
 Gravitational Potential and Potential Energy
 Earth Satellites
Mechanical Properties of Solids
 Introduction to Mechanical Properties of Solids
 Elastic Behavior of Solids
 Stress and Strain
 Hooke’s Law
 Elastic Modulus
 Stressstrain Curve
 Strain Energy
 Hardness
 Friction in Solids
Thermal Properties of Matter
 Introduction to Thermal Properties of Matter
 Heat and Temperature
 Measurement of Temperature
 Absolute Temperature and Ideal Gas Equation
 Thermal Expansion
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Calorimetry
 Change of State
 Heat Transfer
 Newton’s Law of Cooling
Sound
 Introduction to Sound
 Types of Waves
 Common Properties of All Waves
 Transverse Waves and Longitudinal Waves
 Mathematical Expression of a Wave
 The Speed of Travelling Waves
 Principle of Superposition of Waves
 Echo, Reverberation and Acoustics
 Qualities of Sound
 Doppler Effect
Optics
 Introduction to Ray Optics
 Nature of Light
 Ray Optics Or Geometrical Optics
 Reflection
 Refraction
 Total Internal Reflection
 Refraction at a Spherical Surface and Lenses
 Dispersion of Light and Prisms
 Some Natural Phenomena Due to Sunlight
 Defects of Lenses (Aberrations of Optical Images)
 Optical Instruments
 Optical Instruments: Simple Microscope
 Optical Instruments: Compound Microscope
 Optical Instruments: Telescope
Electrostatics
 Introduction to Electrostatics
 Electric Charges
 Basic Properties of Electric Charge
 Coulomb’s Law  Force Between Two Point Charges
 Principle of Superposition
 Electric Field
 Electric Flux
 Gauss’s Law
 Electric Dipole
 Continuous Distribution of Charges
Electric Current Through Conductors
 Electric Current
 Flow of Current Through a Conductor
 Drift Speed
 Ohm's Law (V = IR)
 Limitations of Ohm’s Law
 Electrical Power
 Resistors
 Specific Resistance (Resistivity)
 Variation of Resistance with Temperature
 Electromotive Force (emf)
 Combination of Cells in Series and in Parallel
 Types of Cells
 Combination of Resistors  Series and Parallel
Magnetism
 Introduction to Magnetism
 Magnetic Lines of Force and Magnetic Field
 The Bar Magnet
 Gauss' Law of Magnetism
 The Earth’s Magnetism
Electromagnetic Waves and Communication System
 EM Wave
 Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Propagation of EM Waves
 Introduction to Communication System
 Modulation
Semiconductors
 Introduction to Semiconductors
 Electrical Conduction in Solids
 Band Theory of Solids
 Intrinsic Semiconductor
 Extrinsic Semiconductor
 pn Junction
 A pn Junction Diode
 Semiconductor Devices
 Applications of Semiconductors and Pn Junction Diode
 Thermistor
 Length
 Units of length
 SI Unit of length
 Subunit of metre
 Multiple units of metre
 Measurements of large distance:
(i) Parallax Method: Parallax or parallactic angle (θ)  Method of measuring very small distances (Size of molecules)
 Range of Lengths
Measurement of Length
Length can be measured using metre scale (103m to 102m), vernier callipers (104 m) and screw gauge and spherometer (105 m).
Measurement of Large Distances
Large distances such as the distance of a planet or a star from the earth cannot be measured directly with a metre scale. An important method in such cases is the parallax method.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight and is measured by the angle or semiangle of inclination between those two lines. The distance between the two viewpoints is called Basis.
When you hold a pencil in front of you against some specific point on the background (a wall) and look at the pencil first through your left eye A (closing the right eye) and then look at the pencil through your right eye B (closing the left eye), you would notice that the position of the pencil seems to change with respect to the point on the wall. This is called parallax. The distance between the two points of observation is called the basis. In this example, the basis is the distance between the eyes.
Measuring the distance of a planet using parallax method
Measuring the distance of a faraway planet:
Let us assume S is a planet a distance D from Earth. A and B are two observatories on Earth.
Distance AB = b
Parallax Angle ∠ASB = θ
As the planet is very far away.
So, `b/D`<< 1
and hence, θ is very small.
AB is an arc of circle with centre S and radius D
D = AS = BS
AB = b = Dθ, where θ is in radians
D = `b/θ` ....(i)
After determining D, the size or angular diameter of the planet can be determined using the same method.
α = `d/D` ....(ii)
Using these two equations, the diameter of the planet can be calculated.
Measuring very small distances
To measure distances as low as the size of a molecule, electron microscopes are used. These contain electron beams controlled by electric and magnetic fields.
 Electron microscopes have a resolution of 0.6 Å or Angstroms.
 Electron microscopes are able to resolve atoms and molecules while using tunnelling microscopy, it is possible to estimate the size of molecule.
Estimating the size of a molecule of Oleic acid:
The steps followed in determining the size of the molecule are:

Dissolve 1 cm3 of oleic acid in alcohol to make a solution of 20 cm3. Take 1 cm3 of the above solution and dissolve in alcohol to make a solution of 20 cm3 Concentration of oleic acid in the solution will be (1/(20x20)) cm3.

Sprinkle lycopodium powder on the surface of the water in a trough and put one drop of the above solution. The oleic acid in the solution will spread over water in a circular, molecular thick film.

Measure the diameter of the above circular film using the below calculations.

If n – Number of drops of solution in water, V – Volume of each drop, t – Thickness of the film, A – Area of the film
Total volume of n drops of solution = nV cm3
Amount of Oleic acid in this solution = nV(1/(20 x 20)) cm3
Thickness of the film t = Volume of the film / Area of the film
t = nV/(20x20A) cm
Range of Lengths
The sizes of the objects we come across in the universe vary over a very wide range. These may vary from the size of the order of 10–14 m of the tiny nucleus of an atom to the size of the order of 1026 m of the extent of the observable universe. The table below gives the range and order of lengths and sizes of some of these objects
Size of object or distance  Length (m) 
Size of a proton  10^{15} 
Size of atomic nucleus  10^{14} 
size of hydrogen atom  10^{10} 
Length of typical virus  10^{8} 
Wavelength of light  10^{7} 
Size of red blood corpuscle  10^{5} 
Thickness of a paper  10^{4} 
Height of the Mount Everest above sea level  10^{4} 
Radius of the Earth  10^{7} 
Distance of the moon from the Earth  10^{8} 
Distance of the Sun from the Earth  10^{11} 
Distance of Pluto from the Sun  10^{13} 
Size of galaxy  10^{21} 
Distance to Andromeda galaxy  10^{22} 
Distance to the boundary of observable universe  10^{26} 