Topics
Units and Measurements
Mathematical Methods
Motion in a Plane
Laws of Motion
 Introduction to Laws of Motion
 Aristotle’s Fallacy
 Newton’s Laws of Motion
 Inertial and Noninertial Frames of Reference
 Types of Forces
 Work Energy Theorem
 Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum
 Collisions
 Impulse of Force
 Rotational Analogue of a Force  Moment of a Force Or Torque
 Couple and Its Torque
 Mechanical Equilibrium
 Centre of Mass
 Centre of Gravity
Gravitation
 Introduction to Gravitation
 Kepler’s Laws
 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
 Measurement of the Gravitational Constant (G)
 Acceleration Due to Gravity (Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration)
 Variation in the Acceleration Due to Gravity with Altitude, Depth, Latitude and Shape
 Gravitational Potential and Potential Energy
 Earth Satellites
Mechanical Properties of Solids
Thermal Properties of Matter
Sound
Optics
Electrostatics
Electric Current Through Conductors
Magnetism
Electromagnetic Waves and Communication System
Semiconductors
description
 Length
 Units of length
 SI Unit of length
 Subunit of metre
 Multiple units of metre
 Measurements of large distance:
(i) Parallax Method: Parallax or parallactic angle (θ)  Method of measuring very small distances (Size of molecules)
 Range of Lengths
notes
Measurement of Length
Length can be measured using metre scale (103m to 102m), vernier callipers (104 m) and screw gauge and spherometer (105 m).
Measurement of Large Distances
Large distances such as the distance of a planet or a star from the earth cannot be measured directly with a metre scale. An important method in such cases is the parallax method.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semiangle of inclination between those two lines. Distance between the two viewpoints is called Basis.
When you hold a pencil in front of you against some specific point on the background (a wall) and look at the pencil first through your left eye A (closing the right eye) and then look at the pencil through your right eye B (closing the left eye), you would notice that the position of the pencil seems to change with respect to the point on the wall. This is called parallax. The distance between the two points of observation is called the basis. In this example, the basis is the distance between the eyes.
Measuring distance of a planet using parallax method
Measuring the distance of a far away planet:
Let us assume S is a planet a distance D from earth. A and B are two observatories on earth.
Distance AB = b
Parallax Angle ∠ASB = θ
As the planet is very far away.
So, `b/D`<< 1
and hence, θ is very small.
AB is an arc of circle with centre S and radius D
D = AS = BS
AB = b = Dθ, where θ is in radians
D = `b/θ` ....(i)
After determining D, size or angular diameter at the planet can be determined using same method.
α = `d/D` ....(ii)
Using these two equations, diameter of planet can be calculated.
Measuring very small distances
To measure distances as low as size of a molecule, electron microscopes are used. These contain electrons beams controlled by electric and magnetic fields.
 Electron microscopes have a resolution of 0.6 Å or Angstroms.
 Electron microscopes are able to resolve atoms and molecules while using tunneling microscopy, it is possible to estimate size of molecule.
Estimating size of molecule of Oleic acid :
The steps followed in determining the size of molecule are:

Dissolve 1 cm3 of oleic acid in alcohol to make a solution of 20 cm3.Take 1 cm3 of above solution and dissolve in alcohol to make a solution of 20 cm3 Concentration of oleic acid in the solution will be (1/(20x20)) cm3.

Sprinkle lycopodium powder on the surface of water in a trough and put one drop of above solution. The oleic acid in the solution will spread over water in a circular molecular thick film.

Measure the diameter of the above circular film using below calculations.

If n – Number of drops of solution in water, V – Volume of each drop, t – Thickness of the film, A – Area of the film
Total volume of n drops of solution = nV cm3
Amount of Oleic acid in this solution = nV(1/(20 x 20)) cm3
Thickness of the film t = Volume of the film / Area of the film
t = nV/(20x20A) cm
Range of Lengths
The sizes of the objects we come across in the universe vary over a very wide range. These may vary from the size of the order of 10–14 m of the tiny nucleus of an atom to the size of the order of 1026 m of the extent of the observable universe. Table below gives the range and order of lengths and sizes of some of these objects
Size of object or distance  Length (m) 
Size of a proton  10^{15} 
Size of atomic nucleus  10^{14} 
size of hydrogen atom  10^{10} 
Length of typical virus  10^{8} 
Wavelength of light  10^{7} 
Size of red blood corpuscle  10^{5} 
Thickness of a paper  10^{4} 
Height of the Mount Everest above sea level  10^{4} 
Radius of the Earth  10^{7} 
Distance of the moon from the Earth  10^{8} 
Distance of the Sun from the Earth  10^{11} 
Distance of Pluto from the Sun  10^{13} 
Size of galaxy  10^{21} 
Distance to Andromeda galaxy  10^{22} 
Distance to the boundary of observable universe  10^{26} 