Linear Equations in Two Variables
Introduction to Euclid’S Geometry
Lines and Angles
- Concept of Quadrilaterals - Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
- Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
- Types of Quadrilaterals
- Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to Be a Parallelogram
- Theorem of Midpoints of Two Sides of a Triangle
- Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
- Theorem: A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides It into Two Congruent Triangles.
- Theorem : If Each Pair of Opposite Sides of a Quadrilateral is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
- Theorem: If in a Quadrilateral, Each Pair of Opposite Angles is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
- Theorem : If the Diagonals of a Quadrilateral Bisect Each Other, Then It is a Parallelogram
- Concept of Circle - Centre, Radius, Diameter, Arc, Sector, Chord, Segment, Semicircle, Circumference, Interior and Exterior, Concentric Circles
- Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point
- Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord
- Circles Passing Through One, Two, Three Points
- Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre
- Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle
- Cyclic Quadrilateral
Areas - Heron’S Formula
Surface Areas and Volumes
Statistics and Probability
Theorem: Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area.
Proof : Two parallelograms ABCD and EFCD, on the same base DC and between the same parallels AF and DC are given in following fig.
We need to prove that ar (ABCD) = ar (EFCD).
In ∆ ADE and ∆ BCF,
∠ DAE = ∠ CBF (Corresponding angles from AD || BC and transversal AF) (1)
∠ AED = ∠ BFC (Corresponding angles from ED || FC and transversal AF) (2)
Therefore, ∠ ADE = ∠ BCF (Angle sum property of a triangle) (3)
Also, AD = BC (Opposite sides of the parallelogram ABCD) (4)
So, ∆ ADE ≅ ∆ BCF [By ASA rule, using (1), (3), and (4)]
Therefore, ar (ADE) = ar (BCF) (Congruent figures have equal areas) (5)
Now, ar (ABCD) = ar (ADE) + ar (EDCB)
= ar (BCF) + ar (EDCB) [From(5)]
= ar (EFCD)
So, parallelograms ABCD and EFCD are equal in area.
Shaalaa.com | Theorem : Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area.
In the below fig. ABCD and AEFD are two parallelograms. Prove that
(1) PE = FQ
(2) ar (Δ APE) : ar (ΔPFA) = ar Δ(QFD) : ar (Δ PFD)
(3) ar (ΔPEA) = ar (ΔQFD)
ABCD is a parallelogram, G is the point on AB such that AG = 2 GB, E is a point of DC
such that CE = 2DE and F is the point of BC such that BF = 2FC. Prove that:
(1) ar ( ADEG) = ar (GBCD)
(2) ar (ΔEGB) = `1/6` ar (ABCD)
(3) ar (ΔEFC) = `1/2` ar (ΔEBF)
(4) ar (ΔEBG) = ar (ΔEFC)
(5)ΔFind what portion of the area of parallelogram is the area of EFG.
In the given figure, ABCD is parallelogram, AE ⊥ DC and CF ⊥ AD. If AB = 16 cm, AE = 8 cm and CF = 10 cm, find AD.
P and Q are any two points lying on the sides DC and AD respectively of a parallelogram ABCD. Show that ar (APB) = ar (BQC).