Linear Equations in Two Variables
Introduction to Euclid’S Geometry
Lines and Angles
- Concept of Quadrilaterals - Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
- Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
- Types of Quadrilaterals
- Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to Be a Parallelogram
- The Mid-point Theorem
- Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
- Theorem: A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides It into Two Congruent Triangles.
- Theorem : If Each Pair of Opposite Sides of a Quadrilateral is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
- Theorem: If in a Quadrilateral, Each Pair of Opposite Angles is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
- Theorem : If the Diagonals of a Quadrilateral Bisect Each Other, Then It is a Parallelogram
- Concept of Circle - Centre, Radius, Diameter, Arc, Sector, Chord, Segment, Semicircle, Circumference, Interior and Exterior, Concentric Circles
- Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point
- Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord
- Circles Passing Through One, Two, Three Points
- Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre
- Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle
- Cyclic Quadrilateral
Areas - Heron’S Formula
Surface Areas and Volumes
Statistics and Probability
If two chords of a circle are equal, then their corresponding arcs are congruent and conversely, if two arcs are congruent, then their corresponding chords are equal. In following fig.
Conversely, If two arcs are equal or congruent then their corresponding chords are equal.
AB ≅ CD
`=>` AB = CD
Theorem: The angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.
If in a circle with centre O , arc PQ of a circle subtends ∠POQ at centre and arc PQ subtends ∠PAQ on the remaining part of the circle than ∠POQ = 2 PAQ.
Theorem: Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.
Suppose we join points P and Q and form a chord PQ in the above figures. Then ∠ PAQ is also called the angle formed in the segment PAQP.
∠ POQ = 2 ∠ PCQ = 2 ∠ PAQ
Therefore, ∠ PCQ = ∠ PAQ.
Here ∠PAQ is an angle in the segment, which is a semicircle. Also, ∠ PAQ = `1/2`
∠POQ = `1/2 xx = 180° =90° `
Theorem: If a line segment joining two points subtends equal angles at two other points lying on the same side of the line containing the line segment, the four points lie on a circle (i.e. they are concyclic).
In following fig. AB is a line segment, which subtends equal angles at two points C and D. That is ∠ ACB = ∠ ADB
To show that the points A, B, C and D lie on a circle. let us draw a circle through the points A, C and B. Suppose it does not pass through the point D. Then it will intersect AD (or extended AD) at a point, say E .
If points A, C, E and B lie on a circle,
∠ ACB = ∠ AEB
But it is given that ∠ ACB = ∠ ADB.
Therefore, ∠ AEB = ∠ ADB.
This is not possible unless E coincides with D.
Similarly, E′ should also coincide with D.
Shaalaa.com | Theorem : The angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.
Prove that a diameter of a circle which bisects a chord of the circle also bisects the angle subtended by the chord at the centre of the circle.
Prove that the line joining the mid-point of a chord to the centre of the circle passes through the mid-point of the corresponding minor arc.