Linear Equations in Two Variables
Introduction to Euclid’S Geometry
Lines and Angles
- Concept of Quadrilaterals - Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
- Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
- Types of Quadrilaterals
- Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to Be a Parallelogram
- Theorem of Midpoints of Two Sides of a Triangle
- Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
- Theorem: A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides It into Two Congruent Triangles.
- Theorem : If Each Pair of Opposite Sides of a Quadrilateral is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
- Theorem: If in a Quadrilateral, Each Pair of Opposite Angles is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
- Theorem : If the Diagonals of a Quadrilateral Bisect Each Other, Then It is a Parallelogram
- Concept of Circle - Centre, Radius, Diameter, Arc, Sector, Chord, Segment, Semicircle, Circumference, Interior and Exterior, Concentric Circles
- Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point
- Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord
- Circles Passing Through One, Two, Three Points
- Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre
- Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle
- Cyclic Quadrilateral
Areas - Heron’S Formula
Surface Areas and Volumes
Statistics and Probability
Theorem :If p(x) is a polynomial of degree `n >= 1` and a is any real number, then
(i) x – a is a factor of p(x), if p(a) = 0, and
(ii) p(a) = 0, if x – a is a factor of p(x).
Proof: By the Remainder Theorem, p(x)=(x – a) q(x) + p(a).
(i) If p(a) = 0, then p(x) = (x – a) q(x), which shows that x – a is a factor of p(x).
(ii) Since x – a is a factor of p(x), p(x) = (x – a) g(x) for same polynomial g(x).
In this case, p(a) = (a – a) g(a) = 0.