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Factorising the Quadratic Polynomial (Trinomial) of the type ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0.

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Theorem :If p(x) is a polynomial of degree `n >= 1` and a is any real number, then
(i) x – a is a factor of p(x), if p(a) = 0, and 
(ii) p(a) = 0, if x – a is a factor of p(x).

Proof:  By the Remainder Theorem, p(x)=(x – a) q(x) + p(a).

(i) If p(a) = 0, then p(x) = (x – a) q(x), which shows that x – a is a factor of p(x).

(ii) Since x – a is a factor of p(x), p(x) = (x – a) g(x) for same polynomial g(x).
In this case, p(a) = (a – a) g(a) = 0.

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