Libraries and Archives




Libraries and Archives:

  library Archives
1. A library is a storeroom where a variety of books, periodicals, and other materials are kept for reading, viewing, studying, or referencing. An archive is a place where historical documents or public records are kept and preserved.
2. Since they may have several copies,  libraries rarely have very rare or unique items. Typically, unusual and unique materials can be found in archives.
3. In libraries, you can find self-help books, best-sellers, and various types of fiction and non-fiction. Archives contain variety of documents, including manuscripts, photos, letters,   diaries, notebooks, etc.
4. Library services include general reference and borrowing. Archival materials cannot be borrowed.
5. Most published resources can be found at libraries. Archives contain both published and unpublished content.

The key tasks in managing a library include gathering books, organizing them in an orderly manner, conserving and preserving those books, disseminating information sources, etc.

The key tasks in managing archives include keeping significant documents in their original state, creating accurate indexes, and managing document retrieval systems.

Many library tasks are completed with the help of computerized systems.

Due to their reliance on computerized systems, the archives are regarded to maintain extremely reliable records.


  1. Library at Takshashila University
  2. Library in Alexandria, Egypt
  3. The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal 
  4. The Assyrian Emperor in Mesopotamia
  5. National Library, Kolkata
  6. Nehru Memorial Museum and
    Library, Delhi
  7. State Central Library, Hyderabad
  8. Library of Asiatic Society, Mumbai
  9. David Sassoon Library, Mumbai


  1. Imperial Record Department, Kolkata
  2. The Maharashtra State Archives

Examples of Libraries and Archives:

1. Saraswati Mahal Granthalay:  

  • In Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, the 'Saraswati Mahal Granthalay' was constructed between the 16th and 17th centuries, during the rule of the Nayak dynasty. 
  • Vyankojiraje Bhosale captured Thanjavur in 1675 CE, resulting in his own independent kingdom. 
  • 'Saraswati Mahal Granthalay' was continuously expanded by Vyankojiraje Bhosale and his successors. 
  • Most of this expansion's contributions came from Sarfojiraje Bhosale.  
  • It was renamed 'The Thanjavur Maharaja Sarfoji's Saraswati Mahal Library' in his honor in 1918. 

Library of Asiatic Society

David Sassoon Library

2. Official Archives in India:  

  • In Kolkata, India, the ‘Imperial Record Department,’ the country's first official archives, was founded in 1891 CE. Delhi became its new location in 1911 C.E 
  • Honorable K.R. Narayanan, who was India's president at the time, released the archives to the public in 1998 CE.  
  • It is a department under the control of the Indian government's Ministry of Culture. 
  • The records have been kept in this location in a sequential manner starting in 1748.  
  • It contains documents in the following languages: English, Arabic, Hindi, Persian, Sanskrit, and Urdu. Additionally, it has Modi script records. 

3. Archives in Maharashtra  

  • In India, each State's government maintains its own archives. 
  • There are offices of the Maharashtra State Archives in Mumbai, Pune, Kolhapur, Aurangabad, and Nagpur.  
  • In the Pune branch, there are around 5 crore Modi papers pertaining to Maratha's history. 
  • These records are known as ‘Peshwa Daftar.’ 

Government of Maharashtra Archives

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