Changing Nature of Political Party System in India

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Definition

  • One-party system: If power remains with one political party for a long period and if no other political parties are influential-the party system is called a one-party system.  
  • Two-party system: In politics, when two political parties are influential and if political parties enjoy power alternatively, the party system is called a two-party system.  
  • Multi-party system: When many political parties compete for political power and more or less, they are equally influential, the party system is called a multi-party system.

Notes

Changing Nature of the Political Party System in India:

  • Congress was a strong political party in the post-independence period. Congress had a majority at the Centre and in most of the States. Indian politics was controlled by the Congress Party. This era was described as the Era of the ‘Single dominant party system’. 
  • The non-Congress parties came together and challenged the ‘Single dominant party system’ in 1977. 
  • Following the Loksabha elections in 1989, the system of one party emerging as the dominant party came to an end. Since then, many parties have begun to establish coalition governments. Both the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Congress Party tried out coalition governments. The political party structure in our country has proven that the idea that coalition governance creates instability is incorrect. In fact, India's coalition government structure has stabilized. 

To get recognition as a national party, the Election Commission has prescribed the following conditions:

National Party Regional Party 
1. A political party should secure a minimum of 6% of the valid votes in four or more States in the earlier Loksabha or State Assembly elections and a minimum of 4 members should be elected in the Loksabha from any state or state in the earlier elections.  A political party should secure a minimum of 6% of the valid votes in the earlier Loksabha or State Assembly elections and a minimum of 2 members should be elected in the Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly). 
OR
2. b. The candidates of a party should be elected from a minimum of 2% constituencies out of total Loksabha constituencies and from a minimum of 3 states. 

A political party should secureminimum of 3% of seats out of the total seats of Vidhansabha – (State Assembly) or a minimum of 3  seats.

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