# Physics Science (English Medium) Class 12 CBSE Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Syllabus 2024-25 Class 12: The CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for the examination year 2024-25 has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2024-25 CBSE Class 12 Physics Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new CBSE syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for 2024-25 is below.

## Syllabus

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 1: Electrostatics

1 Electric Charges and Fields
• Electric Charges
• Point charge
• Test charge
• Conductors and Insulators
• Conductors
• Insulators (Non-Conductors)
• Basic Properties of Electric Charge
• Quantization of Charge
• Conservation of Charge
• Forces between Charges
• Coulomb’s Law - Force Between Two Point Charges
• Scalar form of Coulomb’s Law
• Relative Permittivity or Dielectric Constant
• Definition of Unit Charge from the Coulomb’s Law
• Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form
• Superposition Principle - Forces Between Multiple Charges
• Superposition principle
• Forces between multiple charges
• Electric Field
• Introduction of Electric Field
• Electric Field Due to a System of Charges
• Physical Significance of Electric Field
• Electric Field Lines
• Electric Flux
• Electric Flux
• Tube of force
• Tube of induction
• Normal Electric Induction (NEI)
• Total Normal Electric Induction (TNEI)
• Electric Dipole
• The field of an electric dipole
• The physical significance of dipoles
• Couple Acting on an Electric Dipole in a Uniform Electric Field
• Electric Intensity at a Point due to an Electric Dipole
• Electric dipole moment (p)
• Electric field intensity·due to an electric dipole at a point on its axial line
• Electric field intensity due to an electric dipole at a point on the equatorial line
• Electric field intensity at a general point due to short electric dipole
• Dipole in a Uniform External Field
• Torque on a Dipole in Uniform Electric Fleld
• Work of an electric dipole
• Continuous Distribution of Charges
• Continuous distribution of charges
• Types of charge distribution
1) Linear charge distribution
2) Surface charge distribution
3) Volume charge distribution
• Gauss’s Law
• Applications of Gauss’s Law
• Statement of Gauss'S Theorem and Its Applications to Find Field Due to Infinitely Long Straight Wire
• Field due to an infinitely long straight uniformly charged wire
• Field due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet
• Field due to a uniformly charged thin spherical shell - Field outside the shell, Field inside the shell
• Charging by Induction
• Electric Field Due to a Point Charge
• Uniformly Charged Infinite Plane Sheet and Uniformly Charged Thin Spherical Shell (Field Inside and Outside)
• Superposition Principle of Forces
• Force Between Two Point Charges
2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Electric Potential
• Potential Due to a Point Charge
• Electric Potential Due to Point Charge
• Potential Due to an Electric Dipole
• Potential Due to a System of Charges
• system of charges
• Equipotential Surfaces
• Equipotential surface
• Properties of equipotential surface
• Shapes of equipotential surface due to various charge distributions
• Relation Between Electric Field and Electrostatic Potential
• Potential Energy of a System of Charges
• Potential Energy in an External Field
• Potential Energy of a Single Charge
• Potential Energy of a System of Two Charges in an External Field
• Potential Energy of a Dipole in an External Field
• Electrostatics of Conductors
• Inside a conductor, electrostatic field is zero
• At the surface of a charged conductor, electrostatic field must be normal to the surface at every point
• The interior of a conductor can have no excess charge in the static situation
• Electrostatic potential is constant throughout the volume of the conductor and has the same value (as inside) on its surface
• Electric field at the surface of a charged conductor
• Electrostatic shielding
• Dielectrics and Polarisation
• Dielectrics
• Types of dielectrics
1) Polar dielectrics
2) Non-polar dielectrics
• Electric polarisation
• Dielectric constant
• Electric susceptibility of dielectric
• Capacitors and Capacitance
• Capacitance
• Redistribution of charges and concept of common potential
• Capacitance of an isolated spherical conductor
• Capacitor
• Principle of a capacitor
• Types of capacitor
1) Parallel plate capacitor
2) Spherical capacitor
3) Cylindrical capacitor
• Applications of capacitors
• The Parallel Plate Capacitor
• Effect of Dielectric on Capacity
• Combination of Capacitors
• Combination of Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
• Wheatstone's bridge of capacitors
• Energy Stored in a Capacitor
• Van De Graaff Generator
• Principle
• Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor with and Without Dielectric Medium Between the Plates
• Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor without dielectric medium
• Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor with dielectric slab between the plates
• Free Charges and Bound Charges Inside a Conductor
• Conductors and Insulators Related to Electric Field
• Electrical Potential Energy of a System of Two Point Charges and of Electric Dipole in an Electrostatic Field
• Electric potential energy
• Electric potential energy of a system of two point charges
• Electric potential energy of an electric dipole in uniform electric field
• Dipole-dipole interaction
• Equilibrium of charges
• Types of equilibrium
1) Stable equilibrium
2) Unstable equilibrium
3) Neutral equilibrium
• Different cases of equilibrium of charge
• Electric Potential Difference

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 2: Current Electricity

3 Current Electricity
• Electric Current
• Electric Current and Electrical Resistance
• Conventional Current
• Drift velocity
• Microscopic model of current
• Types of electric current: Alternating current (ac) and Direct current (dc)
• Electric Currents in Conductors
• Ohm's Law (V = IR)
• Statement of Ohm's law
• Unit of resistance
• Conductance
• I-V graph
• Slope of I-V graph
• Current Density
• Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity
• Drift velocity
• Relaxation time
• Mobility of electron
• Relation of drift velocity with current
• Limitations of Ohm’s Law
• Resistivity of Various Materials
• Carbon resistors
• Colour code for carbon resistors
• Temperature Dependence of Resistance
• Temperature dependence of resistance
• Electrical Power
• Electric power
• Power-voltage rating
• Power of electrical appliances connected in parallel
• Power of electrical appliances connected in series
• Power in mixed combination of cells
• Practical units of electric energy in terms of power
• Units of electrical power
• Cells, Emf, Internal Resistance
• E.M.F. and Internal Resistance of Cell
• Combination of Cells in Series and in Parallel
• Combination of cells in series and parallel
1) Series combination of cells
⇒ Cells of different e.m.f's and internal resistances connected in series
⇒ For n identical cells in series (Assisting mode)
2) Parallel combination of cells
⇒ For n identical parallel cells
3) Mixed combination of cells
• Kirchhoff’s Rules
• Kirchhoff's law
• Kirchhoff's first law or Kirchhoff's current law (KCL)
• Kirchhofrs second law or Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL)
• Applications of Kirchhoff's law
• Wheatstone’s bridge
• Meter bridge
• Potentiometer
• Comparison of emf of two cells with a potentiometer
• Measurement of internal resistance of a cell by potentiometer
• Wheatstone Bridge
• Wheatstone bridge
• Balanced bridge
• Unbalanced bridge
• Different Measuring Instruments
• Conductivity and Conductance;
• Delta Star Transformation
• Potential Difference and Emf of a Cell
• Measurement of Internal Resistance of a Cell
• Potentiometer
• Potentiometer Principle
• Applications to measure potential difference
1. To Compare emf. of Cells
2. To Find Internal Resistance (r) of a Cell
3. Application of potentiometer
1. Voltage Divider
2. Audio Control
3. Potentiometer as a senor
• Advantages of a Potentiometer Over a Voltmeter
1. Merits
2. Demerits
• Metre Bridge
• Metre bridge or slide-wire bridge
• Applications of metre bridge
• Measurement of unknown resistance (S)
• Comparison of two unknown resistances
• Measurement of unknown temperature
• Measurement of unknown resistance of a galvanometer (Kelvin's method)
• Combination of Resistors - Series and Parallel
• Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity
• Electrical resistivity (specific resistance)
• Conductivity
• V-I Characteristics (Linear and Non-linear)
• Flow of Electric Charges in a Metallic Conductor

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 3: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

4 Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Magnetic Force
• Sources and fields
• Magnetic Field, Lorentz Force
• Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor
• Motion in a Magnetic Field
• Helical motion of Charges Particles and  Aurora Borealis
• Force on moving charge in uniform magnetic field
• Force on a charged particle in an electric field
• Magnetic Field Due to a Current Element, Biot-Savart Law
• Biot Savart’s Law
• Some important features of Biot Savart's law
• Its application to the current carrying circular loop
• Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop
• Ampere’s Circuital Law
• Ampere's Law and Its Applications to Infinitely Long Straight Wire
• Magnetic field due to the current carrying wire of infinite length using Ampère’s law
• Magnetic field due to a long current carrying solenoid
• Toroid
• Solenoid and the Toroid - the Solenoid
• Force Between Two Parallel Currents, the Ampere
• Definition of Ampere
• Force Between Two Parallel Current-carrying Conductors
• Roget's Spiral For Attraction Between parallel currents
• Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole
• Circular Current Loop as a Magnetic Dipole
• Torque on a Rectangular Current Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field
• The Magnetic Dipole Moment of a Revolving Electron
• Moving Coil Galvanometer
• Moving Coil Galvanometer
• Moving Coil Galvanometer Conversion to Voltmeter and Ammeter
• Moving Coil Galvanometer Current Sensitivity
• Types of Moving Coil Galvanometer
1. Suspended type MCG: Principle, Construction
2. Pivoted type MCG
• Sensitivity of MCG
• Current sensitivity (Si)
• Voltage Sensitivity (Sv)
• Factors affecting the sensitivity of MCG
• Accuracy of MCG
• Conversion of MCG into ammeter
• Conversion of MCG into voltmeter
• Oersted’s Experiment
• Solenoid and the Toroid - the Toroid
• Magnetic Diapole
• Torque on a Current Loop in Magnetic Field
• Torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field
• Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole
• The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron
• Force on a Current - Carrying Conductor in a Uniform Magnetic Field
• Force on a Moving Charge in Uniform Magnetic and Electric Fields
• Straight and Toroidal Solenoids (Only Qualitative Treatment)
• Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields
• Velocity Selector
• Cyclotron
• Cyclotron
• Principle
• Construction
• Working
• Limitations
• Uses
5 Magnetism and Matter

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 4: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

6 Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Demonstration of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction
• Faraday's explanation of Electromagnetic Induction
• The Experiments of Faraday and Henry
1) Coil and magnet experiment
2) Coil and coil experiment
• Magnetic Flux
• Laws of Electromagnetic Induction or Faraday's Laws of Induction
1) First law
2) Second Law
• Lenz’s Law and Conservation of Energy
• Lenz's Law
• Motional Electromotive Force (e.m.f.)
1. Translational motion of a conductor
2. Motional emf in a rotating bar
• Inductance
• Mutual Inductance
• Mutual Induction
• Factors affecting mutual inductance (M)
• Relation between M, L1, and L2.
• Two coils in series
• Two coils in parallel
• Self Inductance
• Self Induction
• Factors affecting self inductance (L)
• A.C. Generator
• A.C. Generator (A. C. dynamo)
• Principle of A.C. generator
• Energy Consideration: a Quantitative Study
• Induced e.m.f. and Induced Current
• Eddy Currents
• Eddy Current
• Drawbacks
• Applications
2) Electric-brakes
3) Induction furnace
4) Speedometer
5) Energy meter
6) Induction motor
7 Alternating Current
• Alternating Currents and Direct Currents
• Different Types of AC Circuits: AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor
• Graph of e and i versus ωt
• Phasor diagram for a purely resistive load
• Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors - Phasors
• Different Types of AC Circuits: AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor
• Graph of e and i versus ωt
• Phasor diagram for purely inductive circuit
• Inductive Reactance (XL)
• Different Types of AC Circuits: AC Voltage Applied to a Capacitor
• Graph of e and i versus ωt
• Phasor diagram for the purely capacitive circuit
• Capacitive Reactance
• Comparison between resistance and reactance
• Different Types of AC Circuits: AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit
• LCR Series Circuit
• Phasor-diagram solution
• Analytical solution
• Resonance  - Sharpness of resonance
• Power in AC Circuit: the Power Factor
• Power in A.C. Circuits
• Power Factor
• Wattless Current
• Instantaneous power
• Average power
• Virtual power
• Choke Coil
• Forced Oscillations and Resonance
• Free, Forced and Damped Oscillations
• resonance
• Small Damping, Driving Frequency far from Natural Frequency
• Driving Frequency Close to Natural Frequency
• LC Oscillations
• Transformers
• Transformer
• Principle of transformer
• Efficiency of transformer (η)
• Losses in transformer
1) Cu loss (I2R)
2) Eddy current loss
3) Hysteresis loss
4) Magnetic flux leakage
5) Humming losses
• Reactance and Impedance
• Peak and Rms Value of Alternating Current Or Voltage
• Alternating Currents
• Alternating current
• Terms Related to alternating current
1. Instantaneous value
2. Peak value
3. Mean value or average value
4. Mean square value
5. Root mean square (r.m.s) value
6. Peak to peak value
7. Form factor and peak factor
8. Impedance (Z)
9. Reactance (X): Inductive and Capacitive reactance
11. Susceptance (S): Inductive and Capacitive susceptance
12. Conductance

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 5: Electromagnetic Waves

8 Electromagnetic Waves
• Elementary Facts About Electromagnetic Wave Uses
• Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Electromagnetic spectrum (Discovered by, Wavelength range, Production, Detection, Characteristics, applications
1. Gamma rays (γ-rays)
2. X-rays
3. Ultraviolet rays (UV rays)
4. Visible light
5. Infrared rays
6. Microwaves
• Approximate ranges of wavelength and frequency
• Properties common to all the electromagnetic waves
• Transverse Nature of Electromagnetic Waves
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Sources of electromagnetic waves: Hertz's experiment
• Nature of electromagnetic waves
• Speed of electromagnetic waves
• Production and properties of electromagnetic waves
• Electromagnetic Waves and Their Characteristics
1) Energy density
2) Poynting vector
3) Momentum
• Displacement Current
• Need for displacement current
• Ampere-Maxwell's circuital law
• Displacement current
• Conduction current
• Origin of electromagnetic waves
• Maxwell's equations
1) Gauss' law in electrostatics
2) Gauss' law in magnetism
3) Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction
4) Ampere - Maxwell's law

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 6: Optics

9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
• Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors
• Sign convention
• Focal length of spherical mirrors
• The mirror equation
• Refraction
• Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and Lenses
• Refraction by a Lens
• Combination of Thin Lenses in Contact
• Equivalent lens (Two thin lenses placed in contact)
• Combination of a lens and a mirror:
⇒ Effect of silvering, one of the refracting surfaces of a lens
• Defects in lenses
1) Chromatic aberration
2) Spherical aberration
⇒ Methods to reduce spherical aberrations in lenses
3) Coma
4) Curvature
• Refraction at Spherical Surfaces
• Refraction at spherical surfaces
1. Refraction from rarer to denser medium
2. Refraction from denser medium to rarer medium
• Power of a Lens
• Refraction Through a Prism
• Optical Instruments
• Optical Instruments: Simple Microscope
1. Near point focusing
2. Normal focusing
3. Resolving power of microscope
4. Resolving power of telescope
• Optical Instruments: Compound Microscope
1. Magnification in compound microscope
• Optical Instruments: Telescope
1. Astronomical telescope and Magnification in astronomical telescope
2. Terrestrial telescope
3. Reflecting telescope
• Optical Instruments: the Eye
1. Nearsightedness (myopia)
2. Farsightedness (hypermetropia)
3. Astigmatism
• Snell’s Law
• Concave Mirror
• Rarer and Denser Medium
• Lensmaker's Formula
• Thin Lens Formula
• Lenses
• Some Natural Phenomena Due to Sunlight
• Mirage
• Rainbow
• Dispersion by a Prism
• Magnification
• Total Internal Reflection
• Total Internal Reflection
• Essential conditions for the total internal reflection
• Total internal reflection in nature - optical fibres
• Rainbow production
• Refraction and total internal reflection of light rays at different angles of incidence
• Consequences of total internal refraction
• Applications of total internal reflection
• Ray Optics - Mirror Formula
• Light Process and Photometry
10 Wave Optics
• Introduction of Wave Optics
• Wave Optics
• Newton's Corpuscular Theory of light
• Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory
• Huygens' Wave Theory of light
• Merits of Huygens' Wave Theory
• Limitations of Huygens' wave theory
• Properties of Luminiferous Ether
• Huygens' Principle
• Wavefront
• Wave normal
• Wave surface
• Huygens' Principle
• Spherical Wavefront
• Plane Wavefront
• Cylindrical wavefront
• Reflection and Refraction of Plane Wave at Plane Surface Using Huygens' Principle
• Refraction of a Plane Wave
• Refraction of light
• Laws of refraction
• Snell's law
• Refraction of plane wave from a plane surface
• Refraction at a Rarer Medium
• Reflection of a Plane Wave by a Plane Surface
• Reflection at plane surface
• Laws of reflection
• The Doppler Effect
• Doppler effect in light
• Red Shift and Blue Shift
• Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves
• Coherent and Incoherent Waves
• Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment
• Young's Double Slit Experiment and Expression for Fringe Width or Young’s Experiment
• Young's double-slit experiment: set up, diagram, geometrical deduction of path difference ∆x = dsinθ, between waves from the two slits
• Using ∆x = nλ for bright fringe and ∆x = (n + ½)λ for dark fringe and sin θ = tan θ = yn/D as y and θ are small, obtain yn = (D/d)nλ and fringe width β = (D/d)λ.
• Graph of distribution of intensity with angular distance.
• Diffraction of Light
• Diffraction of light
• Examples of diffraction of light
• The Single Slit
• Seeing the Single Slit Diffraction Pattern
• The Validity of Ray Optics
• Resolving Power of Microscope and Astronomical Telescope
• Resolution of images
• Rayleigh's criterion for resolution
• Resolving the power of an optical instrument
• Resolving power of microscope
• Resolving power of telescopes
• Refraction of Monochromatic Light
• Polarisation
• Method of producing polarised light
1. Polarisation by reflection
2. By Dichroism
3. By double refraction
4. Nicol prism
5. By scattering
• Uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids
• Law of Malus
• Principle of Superposition of Waves
• Superposition principle
• Some important terms
1) Phase
2) Phase difference
3) Path difference
• Resultant amplitude due to superposition
• Resultant intensity due to superposition
• Corpuscular Theory
• Plane Polarised Light
• Width of Central Maximum
• Interference
• Proof of Laws of Reflection and Refraction Using Huygens' Principle
• Proof of laws of reflection by using Huygens' principle
• Proof of laws of refraction using Huygens' Principle
• Brewster's Law
• Fraunhofer Diffraction Due to a Single Slit
• Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction (elementary explanation only)
• Formulae based comparison between secondary maxima and minima
• Diffraction at a single slit: experimental setup, diagram, diffraction pattern, obtain an expression for the position of minima, a sinθn = nλ, where n = 1, 2, 3 … and conditions for secondary maxima, asinθn = (n + ½)λ.
• Distribution of intensity with angular distance
• Diffraction at plane grating
• Diffraction due to circular aperture
• Comparison between interference and diffraction
• Fresnel distance
• Coherent and Incoherent Sources and Sustained Interference of Light
• Coherent sources
• Incoherent sources
• Sustained interference pattern
• Conditions necessary to obtain sustained (steady) interference pattern
• Reflection and Refraction of Plane Wave at a Plane Surface Using Wave Fronts
• Speed of Light
• Fizeau’s method to determine speed of light
• Speed of light through different media
• Refractive index
• Optical path

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 7: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electron Emission
• Electron emission
• Thermionic emission
• Field emission
• Photoelectric emission
• Photoelectric Effect - Hertz’s Observations
• Photoelectric Effect - Hallwachs’ and Lenard’s Observations
• Hertz and Lenard's Observations
• Hallwach and Lenard's Experiment
• Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
• Effect of frequency on the photoelectric current: Threshold frequency, Threshold wavelength
• Effect of intensity of light on the photoelectric current
• Effect of potential difference on photoelectric current
• Effect of photometals on stopping potential
• Laws of photoelectric emission
• Photoelectric cell: Construction, Working, and Applications of photocell
• Failure of wave theory of light to explain photoelectric effect
• Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light
• Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation
• Einstein's photoelectric equation
• Work function (Φ)
• Particle Nature of Light: The Photon
• Characteristics of photon
• Einstein’s Equation - Particle Nature of Light
• Einstein's equation Emax = hυ - W0; threshold frequency
• Einstein used Planck’s ideas and extended it to apply for radiation (light); the photoelectric effect can be explained only assuming the quantum (particle) nature of radiation.
• Determination of Planck’s constant (from the graph of stopping potential Vs versus frequency f of the incident light).
• Momentum of photon p = E/c = hν/c = h/λ.
• Davisson and Germer Experiment
• de-Broglie Relation
• De Broglie hypothesis, phenomenon of electron diffraction (qualitative only).
• Wave nature of radiation is exhibited in interference, diffraction and polarisation; particle nature is exhibited in photoelectric effect.
• Dual nature of matter: particle nature common in that it possesses momentum p and kinetic energy KE. The
wave nature of matter was proposed by Louis de Broglie, λ = h/p = h/mv.
• Wave Nature of Matter
• Matter waves
• De Broglie wave relation
• De Broglie wavelength of an electron
• Ratio of de Broglie wavelengths of photon and electron

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 8: Atoms and Nuclei

12 Atoms
13 Nuclei
• Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus
• Composition and Size of Nucleus
• Size of the Nucleus
• Mass-energy and Nuclear Binding Energy
• Mass - Energy
• Nuclear Binding Energy
• Binding Energy per Nucleon and Its Variation with Mass Number
• Nuclear Force
• Alpha Decay

Alpha Particles Or Rays and Their Properties

• Beta Decay

Beta Particles Or Rays and Their Properties

• Gamma Decay
• Gamma Particles Or Rays and Their Properties
• Nuclear Energy
• Introduction of Nuclear Energy
• Nuclear Fission
• Nuclear Fusion – Energy Generation in Stars
• Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion
• Nuclear Reactor
• Mass Defect and Binding Energy
• Atomic Mass, Mass - Energy Relation and Mass Defect
• Atomic Mass
• Mass-Energy Relation
• Mass Defect
• Packing fraction

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 9: Electronic Devices

14 Semiconductor Electronics - Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Concept of Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors
• Classification of solid on the basis of conductivity
1. Conductors
2. Insulators
3. Semiconductors
• On the basis of energy bands
• Energy Bands in Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators
• Elementary ideas about electrical conduction in metals [crystal structure not included]. Energy levels (as for hydrogen atom), 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, etc. of an isolated atom such as that of copper; these split, eventually forming ‘bands’ of energy levels, as we consider solid copper made up of a large number of isolated atoms, brought together to form a lattice; definition of energy bands - groups of closely spaced energy levels separated by band gaps called forbidden bands.
• An idealized representation of the energy bands for a conductor, insulator and semiconductor; characteristics, differences; distinction between conductors, insulators and semiconductors on the basis of energy bands, with examples; qualitative discussion only; energy gaps (eV) in typical substances (carbon, Ge, Si); some electrical properties of semiconductors.
• Intrinsic Semiconductor
• Intrinsic Semiconductors
• Holes in Semiconductors
• Extrinsic Semiconductor
• Doping
• Types of doping
1) Pentavalent dopants
2) Trivalent dopants
• Extrinsic semiconductors
• Types of Extrinsic semiconductors
1) n-type semiconductor
2) p-type semiconductor
• The conductivity of semiconductors (σ)
• Charge neutrality of extrinsic semiconductors
• p-n Junction
• p-n junction
• Formation of p-n junction
• Semiconductor Diode
• Semiconductor Diode
• Potential barrier at the junction diode
• Biasing of the p-n junction diode
1) Forward biasing
2) Reverse biasing
• V-I Characteristics of a p-n junction diode
1) p-n junction diode under forward bias: Cut-off or knee voltage
2) p-n junction diode under reverse bias: Breakdown voltage
3) Reverse Breakdown: Zener breakdown, Avalanche breakdown
• Dynamic Resistance
• Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
• p-n junction Diode as rectifier
• Half-wave rectifier: Circuit connections, Working, Input/output waveforms, Disadvantages
• Full-wave rectifier: Circuit connections, Working, Input/output waveforms, Disadvantages
• Filters: Input/output waveforms, Comparison between half-wave rectifier and full-wave rectifier
• Integrated Circuits
• Junction Transistor
• Feedback Amplifier and Transistor Oscillator
• Transistor as an oscillator: Construction, Working
• Gain and Berkhausen's criterion
• Uses
• Transistor as a Device
• Transistor
• Three main regions
1) Emitter (E)
2) Base (B)
3) Collector (C)
• Current in transistor
• Basic Transistor Circuit Configurations and Transistor Characteristics
• Common emitter transistor characteristics,(i) Input resistance (ri ), Output resistance (ro), Current amplification factor (β)
• Transistor: Structure and Action
• Types of Transistor
1) n-p-n transistor
2) p-n-p transistor
• Action of n-p-n transistor
• Action of p-n-p transistor
• Current in transistor
• Transistor as an Amplifier (Ce-configuration)
• npn Transistor as Common Emitter Amplifier
• Various gains in amplifiers
• Comparison between CB, CE and CC amplifier
• Transistor Action
• Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
• Logic Gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR)
• Logic gates - NOT gate, OR Gate, AND Gate, NAND Gate, NOR Gate
• Basic Idea of Analog and Digital Signals
• Transistor and Characteristics of a Transistor
• Configurations of a transistor
i) Common-base configuration (CB)
ii) Common-emitter configuration (CE)
iii) Common-collector configuration (CC)
• Types of characteristic curves
i) Input characteristics curve
ii) Output characteristics curve
iii) Transfer characteristics curve
• Transistor characteristics in CE configuration
a) Input Characteristics
b) Output characteristics of a transistor: Active region, Cut-off region, Saturation region
• Different modes of operation of a transistor
• Current-transfer Characteristics
• Transistor as a switch
• Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator
• Zener diode
• I-V characteristics of Zener diode
• Zener diode as voltage regulator
• Line regulation in Zener diode
• Load regulation in Zener diode
• Ratings of a Zener diode
• Special Purpose P-n Junction Diodes
• Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes: Led, Photodiode, Solar Cell and Zener Diode
• characteristics of Led, Photodiode, Solar Cell and Zener Diode
• Zener diode
• Optoelectronic junction devices - Photodiode, Light emitting diode, Solar cell
• Diode as a Rectifier
• Triode

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 10: Communication Systems

15 Communication Systems

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Chapter 11: The Special Theory of Relativity

16 The Special Theory of Relativity
• The Special Theory of Relativity
• The Principle of Relativity
• Maxwell'S Laws
• Kinematical Consequences
1. A Rod Moving Perpendicular to its Length
2. Moving Clocks (Time Dilation)
3. A Rod Moving Parallel to its Length (Length Contraction)
• Dynamics at Large Velocity
• Energy and Momentum
• The Ultimate Speed