# Physics Class 12 PUC Karnataka Science CBSE Topics and Syllabus

CBSE Syllabus For Class 12 Physics: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 12. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus for the academic year 2022-2023 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 12 Physics Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus pdf 2022-2023. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 12 Physics in addition to this.

## Syllabus

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Electrostatics

1 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Electric potential; potential difference; electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces; electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
• Conductors and insulators; free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation; capacitors and capacitance; combination of capacitors in series and in parallel; capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates; energy stored in a capacitor.
2 Electric Charges and Fields
• Electric Charges; Conservation of charge; Coulomb's law-force between two point charges; forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
• Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld.
• Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Current Electricity

3 Current Electricity
• Electric current; flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor; drift velocity; mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law; electrical resistance; V-1 characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power; electrical resistivity and conductivity; Carbon resistors; colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
• Internal resistance of a cell; potential difference and emf of a cell combination of cells in series and in parallel; Kirchhoffs laws and simple applications; Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
• Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

4 Magnetism and Matter
• Current Loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment; magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron; magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis; torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid; magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.
• Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths; permanent magnets.
5 Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment.
• Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
• Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment); force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields; Cyclotron .
• Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field; force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

6 Alternating Current
• Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only); LCR series circuit; resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor; wattless current.
• AC generator and transformer.
7 Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's Laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Electromagnetic Waves

8 Electromagnetic Waves
• Elementary Facts About Electromagnetic Wave Uses
• Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Electromagnetic spectrum (Discovered by, Wavelength range, Production, Detection, Characteristics, applications
1. Gamma rays (γ-rays)
2. X-rays
3. Ultraviolet rays (UV rays)
4. Visible light
5. Infrared rays
6. Microwaves
• Approximate ranges of wavelength and frequency
• Properties common to all the electromagnetic waves
• Transverse Nature of Electromagnetic Waves
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Sources of electromagnetic waves: Hertz's experiment
• Nature of electromagnetic waves
• Speed of electromagnetic waves
• Production and properties of electromagnetic waves
• Electromagnetic Waves and Their Characteristics
1) Energy density
2) Poynting vector
3) Momentum
• Displacement Current
• Need for displacement current
• Ampere-Maxwell's circuital law
• Displacement current
• Conduction current
• Origin of electromagnetic waves
• Maxwell's equations
1) Gauss' law in electrostatics
2) Gauss' law in magnetism
3) Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction
4) Ampere - Maxwell's law
• Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
• Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, inf rared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Optics

9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
1. Ray Optics:Reflection of light; spherical mirrors; mirror formula; refraction of light; total internal reflection and its applications; optical; fibres; refraction at spherical surfaces; lenses; thin lens formula; lensmaker's formula; magnification, power of a lens; combination of thin lenses in contact; refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
2. Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
3. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
10 Wave Optics
• Wave front and Huygen's principle; reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference;
• Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light; diffraction due to a single slit; width of central maximum ; resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope, polarisation; plane polarised light;
• Brewster's law; uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
• Dual nature of radiation; Photoelectric effect; Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
• Matter waves-wave nature of particles ; de-Broglie relation; Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Atoms and Nuclei

12 Nuclei
• Composition and size of nucleus; Radioactivity; alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decaylaw.
• Mass-energy relation; mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission; nuclear fusion.
13 Atoms
• Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Electronic Devices

14 Semiconductor Electronics - Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Integrated Circuits
• Junction Transistor
• Transistor as a Device
• Transistor
• Three main regions
1) Emitter (E)
2) Base (B)
3) Collector (C)
• Current in transistor
• Transistor: Structure and Action
• Types of Transistor
1) n-p-n transistor
2) p-n-p transistor
• Action of n-p-n transistor
• Action of p-n-p transistor
• Current in transistor
• Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
• p-n junction Diode as rectifier
• Half-wave rectifier: Circuit connections, Working, Input/output waveforms, Disadvantages
• Full-wave rectifier: Circuit connections, Working, Input/output waveforms, Disadvantages
• Filters: Input/output waveforms, Comparison between half-wave rectifier and full-wave rectifier
• p-n Junction
• p-n junction
• Formation of p-n junction
• Intrinsic Semiconductor
• Intrinsic Semiconductors
• Holes in Semiconductors
• Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors
• Classification of solid on the basis of conductivity
1. Conductors
2. Insulators
3. Semiconductors
• On the basis of energy bands
• Extrinsic Semiconductor
• Doping
• Types of doping
1) Pentavalent dopants
2) Trivalent dopants
• Extrinsic semiconductors
• Types of Extrinsic semiconductors
1) n-type semiconductor
2) p-type semiconductor
• The conductivity of semiconductors (σ)
• Charge neutrality of extrinsic semiconductors
• Transistor Action
• Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
• Logic Gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR)
• Logic gates - NOT gate, OR Gate, AND Gate, NAND Gate, NOR Gate
• Basic Idea of Analog and Digital Signals
• Transistor and Characteristics of a Transistor
• Configurations of a transistor
i) Common-base configuration (CB)
ii) Common-emitter configuration (CE)
iii) Common-collector configuration (CC)
• Types of characteristic curves
i) Input characteristics curve
ii) Output characteristics curve
iii) Transfer characteristics curve
• Transistor characteristics in CE configuration
a) Input Characteristics
b) Output characteristics of a transistor: Active region, Cut-off region, Saturation region
• Different modes of operation of a transistor
• Current-transfer Characteristics
• Transistor as a switch
• Semiconductor Diode
• Semiconductor Diode
• Potential barrier at the junction diode
• Biasing of the p-n junction diode
1) Forward biasing
2) Reverse biasing
• V-I Characteristics of a p-n junction diode
1) p-n junction diode under forward bias: Cut-off or knee voltage
2) p-n junction diode under reverse bias: Breakdown voltage
3) Reverse Breakdown: Zener breakdown, Avalanche breakdown
• Dynamic Resistance
• Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator
• Zener diode
• I-V characteristics of Zener diode
• Zener diode as voltage regulator
• Line regulation in Zener diode
• Load regulation in Zener diode
• Ratings of a Zener diode
• Special Purpose P-n Junction Diodes
• Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes: Led, Photodiode, Solar Cell and Zener Diode
• characteristics of Led, Photodiode, Solar Cell and Zener Diode
• Zener diode
• Optoelectronic junction devices - Photodiode, Light emitting diode, Solar cell
• Diode as a Rectifier
• Energy Bands in Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators
• Elementary ideas about electrical conduction in metals [crystal structure not included]. Energy levels (as for hydrogen atom), 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, etc. of an isolated atom such as that of copper; these split, eventually forming ‘bands’ of energy levels, as we consider solid copper made up of a large number of isolated atoms, brought together to form a lattice; definition of energy bands - groups of closely spaced energy levels separated by band gaps called forbidden bands.
• An idealized representation of the energy bands for a conductor, insulator and semiconductor; characteristics, differences; distinction between conductors, insulators and semiconductors on the basis of energy bands, with examples; qualitative discussion only; energy gaps (eV) in typical substances (carbon, Ge, Si); some electrical properties of semiconductors.
• Concept of Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Triode
• Energy bandsin conductors;semiconductors and insulators (qual tative ideas only)
• Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier;
• Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics; zener diode as a voltage regulator.
• Junction transistor; transistor action; characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration); basic idea of analog and digital;signals Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NANO and NOR).

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Communication Systems

15 Communication Systems
• Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagat on, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation.

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for The Special Theory of Relativity

16 The Special Theory of Relativity