Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science
India and European Colonialism
Colonialism and the Marathas
India: Social and Religious Reforms
Indian Struggle Against Colonialism
Decolonisation to Political Integration of India
World Wars and India
World : Decolonisation
India Transformed - Part 1
India Transformed - Part 2
Reorganisation of States:
The year 2000 proved to be important for the formation of new states. States with large areas (Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar) were divided and new states were formed. New states, namely, Chhattisgarh (1st November 2000), Uttarakhand (9th November 2000), and Jharkhand (15th November 2000) came into existence. After the formation of lingual states in India, this was the first instance of the formation of new states.
The demand for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh was first put forth in the session of the Indian National Congress in pre-independence times. However, ‘States Reorganisation Commission headed by Fazal Ali, rejected the demand. In 1998, in the session of the Legislative Assembly of Madhya Pradesh, the proposal of creating a separate state of Chhattisgarh was approved. Later, by the initiative of the Government of India, the separate state of Chhattisgarh was created.
The people of Garhwal and Kumaon were demanding a separate state since 1930. It was supported in the 1938 session of the Indian National Congress. However, Fazal Ali Commission ruled it out. The people in this region started a movement for their demand in 1957. In 1973, ‘Uttarakhand Parvatiya Rajya Parishad’ was established. In 1994, the movement got intensified. In recognition of the popular sentiment, a bill for a separate state was passed by the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Finally, in 2000 the state of Uttaranchal (later named Uttarakhand) came into being.
In 1929, the demand for a separate state of Jharkhand was staged for the first time. In 1947, the All India Jharkhand Party was established and the demand for a separate state of Jharkhand was accelerated. In 1973, an appeal was presented to the President and the Prime Minister. In 1994, the Bihar Legislative Assembly passed the bill of ‘Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC)’. In August 2000, a bill providing for Bihar’s division and creation of a separate state of Jharkhand was passed in the lower house of the Parliament (Lok Sabha). On the day of 15th November 2000, the separate state of Jharkhand came into existence.
The state of Telangana was formed in 2014. Earlier it was an integral part of the state of Andhra Pradesh. ‘Telangana Rashtriya Samiti’ started the movement for the creation of a separate state of Telangana. In 2001, the Government of India announced the decision of the separate state of Telangana. In 2014, this proposal was approved in the parliament. On 2nd June 2014, the separate state of Telangana came into existence.
5) Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh:
The state of Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh was given a special status by ‘Article 370’ of the Constitution of India. In 1947, Prem Nath Dogra established the ‘Jammu Praja Parishad’ party. Its initial motto was ‘Ek Vidhan, Ek Pradhan, Ek Nishan’. Later, in 1952, it was changed to ‘Ek Desh me Do Vidhan, Do Pradhan, Do Nishan Nahi Chalenge, Nahi Chalenge’. This party demanded complete accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. The party in power, National Conference, however, was not ready to give up the autonomy of the state. Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (Minister for Industry and Supply in Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s Cabinet) supported the demand for a complete merger. Recently in August 2019, the Government of India revoked ‘Article 370’. From 31st October 2019, the state of Jammu and Kashmir was restructured as two separate Union Territories of ‘Jammu-Kashmir’ and ‘Ladakh’.