India and European Colonialism - Dutch




India and European Colonialism - Dutch:

In 1602, several Dutch companies came together to form a company, named ‘United East India’. The Dutch Government issued a license to the company to conduct trading with the eastern countries. The same license permitted them to appoint staff, to establish factories, to build forts, to engage in battles against the eastern countries and also to sign treaties with them. Accordingly, the company appointed a Governor-General to take care of the Indian affairs. By the middle of the 17th century the company had established Dutch colonies and factories right from the eastern coast of Africa to Japan. It encompassed the present day regions of Mozambique, South Africa, Yemen, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Siam, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Taiwan, China, Japan, Indonesia and Malaysia. The Dutch built various buildings in the premises of their factories and also fortification walls around them. They installed canons on the fortification walls for security. The Dutch also had native people in their staff. They established their first factory in 1602 at Petapuli in the northern parts of Coromandel coast. Their other factories were built in Machilipatnam, Pulicat, Thirupapuliyur, Port Nova, Karikal, Agra, Ahemdabad, Bharuch, Chinsura, Thatta, Khambayat, Surat and Nagapattan. They obtained permission from the Vijaynagara court and built forts in Pulicat and Nagapattan. Later, they defeated the Portuguese and acquired the forts at Kochi, Kodunglur, Kannur and Kollam. They also obtained monopoly in black pepper trade by entering a treaty with the king of Kochi. At the beginning of the 17th century the Dutch naval force was very strong. At any given moment they could deploy at least 20 war ships and an army of 3-4 thousand soldiers. The Mughal, Adilshahi and Qutubshahi ships were required to obtain license from the Dutch. If any ship was launched without a license, it was seized by the Dutch.

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