Introduction of Human Health and Diseases




Introduction of Human Health and Diseases:

  • Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease.  
  • Early Greeks like Hippocrates as well as Indian Ayurveda system of medicine asserted that persons with ‘black-bile’ belonged to hot personality and would have fevers. This idea was arrived at by pure reflective thought. 
  • The discovery of blood circulation by William Harvey using experimental method and the demonstration of normal body temperature in persons with black bile using thermometer disproved the ‘good humor’ hypothesis of health. 
  • Health is affected by –  
  1. Genetic disorders: Deficiencies with which a child is born and deficiencies/ defects which the child inherits from parents from birth; 
  2.  infections 
  3. life style including food, water, rest, exercise, and habits 
  • When people are healthy, they are more efficient at work, increase productivity, and bring economic prosperity. 
  • The factors affecting the health of an individual include genetic disorders (deficiencies with which a child is born and deficiencies I defects which the child inherits from parents from birth), infections, and lifestyle (including food and water, rest, exercise and habits that we have or we lack).  
  • The factors essential for maintaining good health are a balanced diet, personal hygiene, regular exercise, awareness about diseases and their effect on different body functions, vaccination against infectious diseases, proper disposal of waste, control vectors, maintaining food and water resources hygiene. 


  • Functioning of one or more organs or a system of the body is adversely affected. 
  • Characterized by the presence of various signs and symptoms. 
  • Drugs and alcohol abuse affects our health adversely.  
  • Hippocrates (460 - 359 B.C.) was the first person to give detailed descriptions of the symptoms of diseases and laid emphasis on good diet, fresh air and rest to keep the diseases away. He was called as the Father of medicine.   
  • Robert Koch is regarded as the chief founder of medical microbiology 
  • Diseases can be classified as infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are diseases which are easily transmitted from one person to another.  
  • They are very common. Some infectious diseases are fatal. e.g., AIDS. Non-infectious diseases remain confined to the person and are not transmitted from one person to another. e.g., Cancer.
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