• Due to genetic and other unknown reasons, the body attacks self-cells. 
  • An abnormal immune response, in which the immune system fails to properly distinguish between self and non-self and attacks its own body, is called an autoimmune disease.
  • Our body produces antibodies (auto-antibodies) and cytotoxic T cells that destroy our own tissues. If a disease-state results, it is referred to as an autoimmune disease.
  • Thus, autoimmunity is a misdirected immune response.
  • Autoimmunity is evidenced by the presence of auto-antibodies and T cells that are reactive with host antigens. 
  • When the cells act as antigens in the same body, they are called autoantigens. 
  • Autoimmune diseases in humans can be divided into two broad categories, namely organ-specific and non-organ-specific (systemic) autoimmune diseases. 
  1. In organ-specific diseases, the autoimmune process is directed mostly against one organ. The autoantibodies may block the functions performed by the organs. Examples include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease (thyroid gland), and Addison’s disease (adrenal glands).
  2. In non-organ specific (systemic) disorders, autoimmune activity is widely spread throughout the body. Rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis are examples for systemic disorders.
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