#### Topics

##### Number Systems

##### Number Systems

##### Algebra

##### Polynomials

##### Linear Equations in Two Variables

##### Coordinate Geometry

##### Geometry

##### Coordinate Geometry

##### Mensuration

##### Introduction to Euclid’S Geometry

##### Lines and Angles

- Introduction to Lines and Angles
- Basic Terms and Definitions
- Intersecting Lines and Non-intersecting Lines
- Parallel Lines
- Pairs of Angles
- Parallel Lines and a Transversal
- Lines Parallel to the Same Line
- Angle Sum Property of a Triangle

##### Statistics and Probability

##### Triangles

##### Quadrilaterals

- Concept of Quadrilaterals - Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
- Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
- Types of Quadrilaterals
- Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to Be a Parallelogram
- Theorem of Midpoints of Two Sides of a Triangle
- Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
- Theorem: A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides It into Two Congruent Triangles.
- Theorem : If Each Pair of Opposite Sides of a Quadrilateral is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
- Theorem: If in a Quadrilateral, Each Pair of Opposite Angles is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
- Theorem : If the Diagonals of a Quadrilateral Bisect Each Other, Then It is a Parallelogram

##### Circles

- Concept of Circle - Centre, Radius, Diameter, Arc, Sector, Chord, Segment, Semicircle, Circumference, Interior and Exterior, Concentric Circles
- Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point
- Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord
- Circles Passing Through One, Two, Three Points
- Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre
- Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle
- Cyclic Quadrilateral

##### Areas - Heron’S Formula

##### Surface Areas and Volumes

##### Statistics

##### Algebraic Expressions

##### Algebraic Identities

##### Area

##### Constructions

- Introduction of Constructions
- Basic Constructions
- Some Constructions of Triangles

##### Probability

## Theorem

**Theorem :** The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.

Draw a circle. Let O be its centre. Draw a chord AB. Let the crease cut AB at the point M. Then, ∠ OMA = ∠ OMB = 90° or OM is perpendicular to AB. So MA = MB.**Theorem :** The line drawn through the centre of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord.

Let AB be a chord of a circle with centre O and O is joined to the mid -point M of AB.**To prove:** OM⊥ AB.

**Proof:** Join OA and OB

In triangles OAM and OBM,

OA =OB (radii of the same circle)

AM =BM (M is the midpoint of PQ)

OM =OM (common)

Therefore, ∆OAM ≅ ∆OBM (SSS congruence rule)

This gives , ∠OMA = ∠OMB = 90°

(Corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent).

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