Economic Activities in India



  • Agriculture
  • Fishing
  • Mining


Economic Activities in India 


  • Unlike Brazil, agriculture in India contributes more to GDP and involves a larger chunk of the population. Approximately 60% of India's land is under cultivation. Its vast expanse of level plains, rich soils, high percentage of cultivable land, wide climatic variety, long growing season, and so on provide a solid foundation for agriculture. Agriculture has a long history in India.
  • Subsistence agriculture predominates in India. India cultivates rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, and millets as major food crops, as well as plantations of tea, coffee, rubber, and cash crops such as sugarcane, cotton, and jute are also produced. India is also a significant producer of fruits and vegetables.


  • Fishing plays an important role in the economy of India. India is one of the largest producers of fish, both marine and inland. 
  • Fisheries contribute to increasing the food supply, creating employment, improving nutritional status, and receiving foreign exchange.
  • Many residents of the coastal regions of Kerala, West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Goa, and Maharashtra include fish in their diet.
  • India's coastline measures about 7500 km. Marine fishing, which is limited to coastal waters in the west from Kachchh, Malabar coast to Coromandal coast in the east, accounts for about 40% of the total annual fish production.
  • Sardines, mackerel, Bombay duck, and prawns are the main fish species. Horse mackerels, clupeids, and silver belly fish are significant species along the eastern coast.
  • In tanks, ponds, lakes, rivers, canals, irrigation channels, etc., freshwater fishing is practised. Silver bellies carp (chopda) etc. forms major freshwater varieties. Inland fisheries produce about 60% of the nation's total fish production.


  • In India, the Chhota Nagpur plateau is a vast treasury of various minerals. The majority of the people work in the mining industry.
  • Eastern Maharashtra and Chattisgarh's Korba both have coal mines. Digboi in Assam, Mumbai High in the Arabian Sea close to Maharashtra, Kalol, and Koyali in Gujarat all have mineral oil wells. At the Godavari River's mouth, mineral oil and natural gas reserves have been found. Both Rajasthan and Cuddapah in Andhra Pradesh have stones such as marble. 


The following images are related to agricultural activities. Identify and write whether they are practised in Brazil or India.

The first images depict the coffee plantations. This is practised in both India and Brazil. Brazil is the world's largest producer of coffee seeds. India is also ranked in the 7th position in the production and export of coffee beans. Coffee is a tropical plant that grows in the hot and humid regions. It is generally cultivated on the hill slopes. In Brazil, it is produced mainly in the southeastern states of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Parana and other places. In India, it is mainly produced in the southern states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. 

The second image depicts tea gardens. This is majorly found in India. India is the 2nd largest producer of tea leaves in the world. The production of tea is negligible in Brazil. Tea is an important cash crop grown both in the tropical and the sub-tropical regions. A hot, humid and moist condition is required for the excellent growth of the crop. It requires a temperature of 21 ̊ and an average rainfall of 150 cm. Since the shrub requires a cooler, rainy and tropical climate for its growth, it is majorly cultivated in the hilly regions. It gives the best yield in the well-drained fertile soil that is rich in nutrients. In India, it is mainly cultivated in the north-eastern states of Assam, Sikkim, Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and the hilly regions of the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

The third image depicts slash and burns cultivation. It is also called shifting cultivation whereby a piece of land is cultivated for a period of time until its fertility is depleted. The initial land is abandoned and another land area cleared is set on fire to make it the next cultivation spot. This is mainly found in the African and South American countries like Brazil. Earlier this was practised in India too, but now it is not common in the country.

The fourth image depicts the cultivation of paddy. It is found in both Brazil and India. Rice is the staple diet crop especially for the regions surrounding the tropical areas of the world. A hot, humid and moist condition is required for the excellent growth of the crop. It gives the best yield in the alluvial soil that has rich nutrients because of the deposition by the flow of rivers and water bodies over time. It results in the formation of river beds and ensures the development of smooth and fertile soil ideal for cultivation. In Brazil, it is produced mainly in the southern states of Santa Catarina and the Rio Grande do Sul. In India, rice is mainly produced in the states falling in the alluvial best of the Ganga-Brahmaputra river basin and the southern states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.


Obtain information regarding pisciculture in India with the help of internet and reference books and write a note.

  1. Breeding, rearing and transplantation of fish by artificial means is called pisciculture. It is also called fish farming.
  2. Fish are raised in enclosures or tanks for commercial purposes.
  3. Pisciculture in India is expanding quickly as a result of the rising demand for fish and fish products.
  4. The climate in India is suited for the practise of pisciculture. Salmon, carp, and catfish are just a few of the many fish species that are raised in fish farms.
  5. Pisciculture has become easy as a result of the abundance of labour and water sources, such as lakes, ponds, rivers, etc.
  6. Due to pisciculture, job opportunities are created.
  7. For those who are interested in this business, banks provide loans.


Show the distribution of crops like wheat, jowar, rice, cotton, sugarcane, tea and apple in the outline map of India. using symbols Name the map.

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