Indian Wildlife




  • Wildlife: Wildlife is encompass all living things that develop naturally or exist without human intervention.


India Wildlife:

  • The term ‘Wildlife’ includes animals of any habitat in nature. Wild animals are non-domesticated animals and include both vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) and invertebrates (bees, butterflies, moths, etc).
  • India has diverse and rich wildlife. The Indian fauna includes approximately 81,251 animal species out of the world's total of approximately 1.5 million species.
  • There are approximately 2,000 bird species in the country. They account for 13% of the global total. There are 2,546 fish species, accounting for nearly 12% of the world's stock. It also accounts for 5% and 8% of the world's amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
  • Elephants are the most magnificent animals among mammals. They can be found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka, and Kerala.
  • The other animals that live in the swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal are one-horned rhinoceroses. Wild ass and camels live in the arid areas of the Rann of Kachchh and the Thar Desert, respectively.
  • Other animals found in India include Indian bison, nilgai (blue bull), chousingha (four-horned antelope), gazel, and various species of deer. It also has several species of monkeys.
  • India is the only country in the world where both tigers and lions can be found. The Gir forest in Gujarat is the natural habitat of the Indian lion.
  • Tigers can be found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sundarbans of West Bengal, and the Himalayan region. Leopards are also members of the cat family. They are important among animals of prey.
  • The Himalayas are home to a diverse range of animals that can survive in extreme cold. Yak, the shaggy horned wild ox weighing around one tonne, Tibetan antelope, bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep, and the kiang (Tibetan wild ass) live in Ladakh's freezing high altitudes. In addition, the ibex, bear, snow leopard, and rare red panda can be found in certain areas.
  • Turtles, crocodiles, and gharials can be found in rivers, lakes, and coastal areas. The gharial is the sole representative of a crocodile species found in the world today.
  • India's bird life is vibrant. Peacocks, pheasants, ducks, parakeets, cranes, and pigeons are among the birds that live in the country's forests and wetlands.

Lion and Lioness

One-horned rhinoceros

Indian Bustard


The Gangetic Dolphin 

Nilgiri Tahr



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Migratory Birds: Some of India's wetlands are popular with migratory birds. Birds such as the Siberian Crane flock in large numbers during the winter. One such place favourable with birds is the Rann of Kachchh.  Flamingos with their brilliant pink plumage flock in thousands to a location where the desert meets the sea to build nest mounds from the salty mud and raise their young ones. It is one of the country's many extraordinary sights.


Tiger is the national animal of India. The number of tigers is decreasing day by day. The situation is similar to elephants.

Find information about such plants and animals?

Find about their habitats?

What should be done to conserve these animals?

In which regions can this be done?

Make a presentation of their possible places.

The animals and plants which are on the verge of extinction are called Endangered species.

Endangered animals:

Animal Habitat
1. One-Horned Rhinocerous The Himalayan foothills of India it can be spotted in Kaziranga National Park, Dudhwan Tiger reserve, Probitora Wildlife Sanctuary.
2. Nilgiri Tahr The Tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats and it can be spotted in Nilgiri hills, Animallai hills, Periyar wildlife sanctuary.
3. Bengal Tigers Deciduous forests, tropical evergreen forests, thorn forests and grass jungles and can be spotted in Tadoba National park, Jim Corbett National Park, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Bandhavgarh National park.
4. Asiatic Lions Sasan Gir jungle area and can be spotted only in Gir National park.
5. Blackbucks or the Indian Antelopes Plains, Grasslands and scrubs and can be spotted in Ranthambore National park, Corbett National park, Kanha National park. 
6. Lion Tailed Macaque Tropical forests of the Western ghats and can be supported in Silent Valley National park, Mundanthural Tiger Reserve.

Endangered Plants:

Plant Scientific name  Region
Malavuram Pterospermum reticulatum Tamil Nadu
Ebony Tree Diospyros Celebica Karnataka
Malabar Lily Chlorophytum malabaricum Tamil Nadu
Spider Wort Belosynapsis vivipara Madhya Pradesh
jeemikanda Ceropegia Odarata Gujarat and Rajasthan

Causes for the decline in the population of flora and fauna:

Illegal human activities such as poaching, hunting and destruction of the natural habitats of these plant and animal species are the major reasons.

Steps to conserve the endangered species:

The following are some of the steps that can be taken to conserve the rich flora and fauna of India from getting extinct:

  1. Creating awareness among the public about the importance of animals and plants.
  2. Making sure that the laws regarding wildlife are implemented properly.
  3. Visiting national parks.
  4. A boycott of products made of animal skin, leather and horns etc.,
  5. Afforestation.

Many wildlife habitats can be created in hilly and mountainous regions where we can find dense forests gifted by nature.


Find out in which parts of India is agriculture practice like the ‘Roca’ found in India? By what names are they called?

Slash and Burn Farming in India
Name Regions
Jhumming Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland
Pamlou Manipur
Dipa Bastar (Chhattisgarh) and Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Bewar or Dahiya Madhya Pradesh
Podu or Penda Andhra Pradesh
Pama Dabi or Koman or Bringa Odisha
Kumara Western Ghats
Valre or Waltre South Eastern Rajasthan
Khi Himalayan belt
Kuruwa Jharkhand
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