Historical Background of Brazil




Historical Background of Brazil:

  • The history of Brazil begins with indigenous people in Brazil.
  • During the extensive European explorations in the late 15th century, led by Portugal and Spain, Brazil was added to the global map.
  • Under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal, Pedro Alvares Cabral became the first European to establish sovereignty over Indigenous lands on April 22, 1500, in a part of South America that is now the Federative Republic of Brazil.
  • Brazil was a Portuguese Empire colony from the 16th to the early 19th centuries.
  • Sugarcane plantations were established along the coast by colonists, who also brought gold and diamonds back to Europe. West Africans were soon brought to Brazil to work as slaves. Numerous individuals from the country's interior came from the coasts and as far away as Europe after the discovery of significant inland gold reserves.
  • Brazil, a Portuguese territory, was verge to begin its own revolution for independence as earlier as the 1790s.
  • The nation proclaimed its independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822, and changed its name to the Empire of Brazil.
  • Kings of Portuguese ancestry ruled until 1888 when the king was driven from power by military commanders and landowners, and Brazil became a federal republic.
  • The Vargas Era (1937-1945) and the Brazilian military government's military rule (1964-1985) were the two dictatorships that the country experienced.
  • From 1930 to 1985, for more than a half-century, it was under a populist military government.
  • By this point, economic development had been replaced by rising inequality and instability, and the president was unable to stem the economy's decline, long-term inflation, and the concurrent collapse of other military dictatorships in South America. 
  • With the adoption of a new Constitution in 1988, democracy was formally restored in Brazil. 
  • Since that time, the military has continued to be governed by civilian legislators and has no formal involvement in domestic politics.
  • The first new presidential election in nearly three decades was held in 1989. 
  • During the years 1990 to 2000, some of the nation's most serious and enduring issues were successfully addressed. 
  • Extreme poverty was significantly reduced, hyperinflation and debt were brought under control, school enrollment and years of education improved significantly for the entire population, Brazil established an ambitious universal public healthcare system, independent judicial and public accountability institutions were established and strengthened, and, to the surprise of many analysts, even the country's income distribution significantly improved.
  • Moreover, the economy grew above the rich countries’ average for some time and, in a historic moment, Brazil survived the global financial crisis of 2007-2008 almost unscathed.
  • Brazil is seen as a contributor to the economic growth of the world and an important market in the future.
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