Climate of Brazil

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Climate of Brazil:

Annual Average Precipitation and Temperature of Brazil 

  • Brazil experiences a wide range of climatic variations due to its vast latitudinal extent.
  • For example, near the equator, the climate is hot, whereas, near the Tropic of Capricorn, the climate is temperate.

A) Temperature:

  • When it comes to temperatures in Brazil, the northern part of the country is hot, while the southern part is cooler. This pattern shows seasonal variations.
  • Temperature varies a little near the equator on the Brazilian coast. Temperature differences in Brazil's coastal regions near the equator are negligible.
  • The majority of this country is in the tropical zone. The equator passes through the country's northern region. This area has a higher temperature.
  • The average temperature in the Amazon valley ranges between 25°−28°C. The Highlands has a cooler climate. The coast has a mild and humid climate due to its proximity to the sea. 

B) Pressure Condition:

  • In the Brazil's coastal regions near the equator, the winds blow vertically. Similarly, the convergence zone of the trade wind is weak here. As a result, cyclones do not form. That is why tropical cyclones rarely visit the coasts of Brazil.

C) Rainfall and Snowfall:

  • Rainfall in Brazil is caused by the South-East Trade Winds and the North-East Trade Winds.
  • The Brazilian highlands extend all the way up to the northern coast. The escarpments act as a barrier to the winds blowing from the sea, resulting in orographic rainfall in the coastal region.Beyond the highlands, the impact of these winds reduces. As a result, there is little rain. This area is in the rainshadow. This area is known as the 'Drought Quadrilateral'.
  • The Amazon valley receives approximately 2000 mm of rainfall, whereas the northeastern coast receives 1000 to 1200 mm.
  • Brazil is a tropical country. It normally does not receive snowfall. But in exceptional conditions, southern polar air masses reach the southern part of Brazil. This causes snowfall here. Snowfall has been recorded in 1879, 1957, and 1985.

Example

Study the graphs given in Fig and answer the following questions.

  1. In which month is the highest temperature found in all four cities?
  2. In which month does it rain the most in the given cities?
  3.  When does Brazil have its rainy season?
  4. Which city has the maximum range of temperature? How much is it?
  5. What type of climate will be found in Rio De Janerio?

  1. The highest temperature in:
    1. Manaus: August-October
    2. Belem: June- December
    3. Porto Alegre: January- February
    4. Rio de Janeiro: February
  2.  The highest rainfall in:
    1. Manaus: March
    2. Belem: March
    3. Porto Alegre: August- September
    4. Rio de Janeiro: January, February, December
  3. Brazil has its rainy season during the months of December to April.
  4. Porto Alegre has the highest range of temperature, ranging from 30 to 140 degrees Celsius.
  5. Rio de Janeiro has a tropical savannah climate.

Example

Study the given figures and answer the following questions:

Cross-section of Brazil’s physiography

  1. Considering the isotherms of Brazil, what is the average range of temperature in Brazil?
  2. In which area does it rain more?
  3. From which directions are winds flowing towards Brazil?
  4. What could be the reason behind that?
  5. What could be the obstruction in the way of these winds?
  6. Which type of rainfall will occur because of these winds?
  7. Correlate these winds and rainfall.
  8. In which part of Brazil are the average temperatures low?
  9. Identify the rain- -shadow area in Brazil. Describe its climatic characteristics.
  10. In which region do you find a higher temperature?
  11. Considering the latitudinal extent of Brazil, where will you find temperate climate in Brazil?
  12. Describe the winds blowing between 0° to 5°N and S zones.
  13. Which method has been used to show distribution in this map?
  1. Considering the isotherms of Brazil, the average range of temperature of Brazil is 10°C (28°C-18°C).
  2. It rains more in the northern and central part of Brazil. E.g., Amazon Valley.
  3. The winds are blowing from North East and South East directions.
  4. These are permanent trade winds which blow from high pressure belt to the equatorial low pressure belt. Brazil being in the tropical zone, a low pressure area is created and wind start blowing from the ocean to the land.
  5. What could be the obstruction in the way of these winds? The Escarpment acts as obstruction in the way of the South East Trade Winds coming from the sea.
  6. Orographic rainfall will occur because of these winds.
  7. The escarpments act as an obstruction to the winds blowing from the sea and cause an orographic type of rainfall in the coastal region. Beyond the Highlands, the effect of these winds gets reduced. As a result, the rainfall is minimal.
  8. The average temperatures are low in the southern part of Brazil.
  9. The north-eastern part of the Brazilian highlands is a rain shadow region. Beyond the highlands, the effect of the South East Trade Winds gets reduced and the rainfall is minimal. Also, the temperature here is quite high. This rain shadow region is referred to as the ’Drought Quadrilateral’.
  10. The northern part of Brazil has higher temperature.

  11. The southern part of Brazil lying below 23° 30' S latitude (Tropic of Capricorn) experiences temperate climate.
  12. The winds blowing between 0° to 5° N and S zones move in the vertical direction leading to convectional type of rain. The North East and South East Trade winds are very weak in this region.
  13. The Isopleth method has been used to show distribution in this map.

Example

Considering the location, the extent of Brazil and India, look for the differences in the elements of climate like temperature and rainfall as per direction. Write a short note on it.

The climatic conditions of India and Brazil are greatly influenced by their coastline.

  1. India receives its rainfall from Southwest monsoon winds whereas Brazil gets its rainfall from Southeast and Northeast trade winds.
  2. India experiences a tropical and subtropical climate. This is because the Tropic of Cancer passes through the centre of India.
  3. Northern Brazil has a hot and humid climate while Southern Brazil experiences a temperate climate. The Equator passes through the north of Brazil and the Tropic of Capricorn passes through southern Brazil.
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