Industries in India




Industries in India 

  • In India, the distribution of industries is very unbalanced. This is due in part to the unequal distribution of the required raw materials and power resources as well as the concentration of businesses, financial resources, and other requirement in big cities.
  • The majority of the metallic mineral reserves are found in Jharkhand, Orissa, neighbouring Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, portions of Rajasthan, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. Therefore, with almost all of the steel centres located here, this area, especially the north-eastern part of the peninsula, has a very high concentration of heavy metallurgical industries.
  • A number of thermal power projects, cheap power from the Damodar-Valley Corporation, and the availability of large quantities of coal and refractory materials have all contributed to the benefits.
  • Copper, lead, and zinc are produced in Rajasthan; steel manganese, and aluminium are produced in Karnataka; and aluminium is produced in Tamil Nadu.
  • The regions that produce raw materials are heavily concentrated with agro-based industries like cotton, jute, and sugar. The forest areas of various states are home to the forest-based industries that produce things like paper, plywood, matches, resins, and lac. Coir, copra, and fish canning industries are heavily concentrated in Kerala's coastal region.
  • While Mathura and Barauni refineries are located in the interior, far from the coast and oil-producing areas, Koyali, Digboi, Noonmati, and Bongaigaon refineries are located close to the petroleum producing areas. The distribution of cement industry is also highly conditioned by the availability of raw materials.
  • The majority of the nation's salt is produced in Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu. Many consumer industries, such as mechanical engineering, electricals, automobiles, fertiliser, and others, have popped up all over the nation, with a greater concentration in the vicinity of the major cities. These industries do not favour any particular raw material.


Look at fig. Observe the logos given below and answer the following questions. 

a. b.







Logos of Various Industries 
  1. Identify the industries with which they are associated.
  2. Which raw material is used for these industries. Classify them accordingly.
  3. From which part of India do they get these raw materials? Discuss and write.
  1. a. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation – Oil and natural gas exploration and production
    b. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. (RINL) – Steel production
    c. Aarey – Dairy and dairy products
    d. Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CLW) – Electric locomotive manufacturing
    e. Maharashtra Agro Industries Development Corporation (Limited) MAIDC – Production of pesticides, fertilizers, animal feed, agro-engineering (introducing new kinds of farm implements, sale and repair of tractors, harvesters etc.) and processing food (like jams, jellies and sauces)
    f. Khadi and Village industries Commission (KVIC)-Establishment and development of khadi and village Industries in rural areas
    g. Central Silk Board (CSB) – Silk production
    h. Rashtriya Chemical and Fertilizers Ltd. (RCF) Chemical and fertilizer production
  2. Classification  Industries  Raw materials 
    Agro-based industries Maharashtra Agro-industries Development Corporation Ltd. Seeds, raw materials required for the production of pesticides, fertilisers
    Khadi and Village Industries Commission Cotton, silk and wool
    Animal product-based industries Aarey Milk
    Central Silk Board (CSB) Silk
    Minerals and metal-based industries Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) Crude oil and natural gas
    Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. (RINL) Iron ore and coal
    Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CLW) Iron and steel and aluminium
    Rashtriya Chemical and Fertilizers Ltd. (RCF) Chemicals and different minerals
  3. a. Iron ore, coal, limestone etc.: Chhota Nagpur plateau area of Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra etc.
    b. Natural Gas: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mumbai High in Arabian Sea
    c. Mineral Oil: Mumbai High in Arabian sea, Digboi in Assam, Ankleshwar in Gujarat
    d. Milk: Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Maharashtra, Punjab, Gujarat etc.
    e. Cotton: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
    f. Silk: Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir
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