First Cities of India
Chalcolithic Villages in India
Janapadas and Republics
Second Urbanisation in India
India and Iran (Persia)
India During Mauryan Period
Post Mauryan India
Kingdoms in South India
India, Nations in the Northwest of the Indian Subcontinent and China
India, Shri Lanka and Southeast Asia
Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagar and Bahamani Kingdom
India During Mughal Period
Swarajya to Empire (Maratha Period)
- Swarajya to Empire - Contribution of Sants
- Foundation and Expansion of Swarajya
- Maratha War of Independence
- Administrative System Established by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
- Release of Shahu Maharaj
- Peshwa Period
- Swarajya to Empire - Art, Architecture, Literature
- Swarajya to Empire - Trade, Industries, and Social Life
Reforms in the Revenue System:
- Akbar made further reforms in the revenue system implemented by Shershah Sur.
- He graded the cultivable land-based on systematic land survey. The land was classified into four types on the basis of annual yield, i.e. fertile (supik), infertile (napik), irrigated (bagayat), and dry crop (jirayat) land.
- Individual land holdings of farmers were registered.
- Documents are known as ‘Kabulayat’ and ‘Patta’ were prepared from the farmers after the fixing of the tax rate.
- Concessions were also granted to the farmers during times of calamities like famine, floods, and epidemics. These were the Welfare policies of Emperor Akbar.
- Todarmal in emperor Akbar’s court is known for his insights regarding the welfare of common people. His insights were instrumental for Akbar’s land reforms. Todar Mal was born in the town of Laharpur in Uttar Pradesh in a Hindu family, considered by historians as either Agarwal, Kayastha, Khatri. Todar Mal's father died when he was very young leaving no means of livelihood for him. Todar Mal started his career from the humble position of a writer but slowly moved up the ranks when the Sher Shah Suri, committed him to the charge of building a new fort of Rohtas in Punjab with the objective of preventing Ghakkar raids and to also act as a barrier to the Mughals in the north-west. After the Sur Dynasty was overthrown by the Mughals, Todar Mal continued in the service of the ruling power, which was now the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Under Akbar, he was placed in charge of Agra. Later, he was made governor of Gujurat. At various times, he also managed Akbar's Mint at Bengal and served in Punjab. Todar Mal's most significant contribution, which is appreciated even today, is that he overhauled the revenue system of Akbar's Mughal empire. Raja Todarmal built a fortress-palace at Laharpur in the Sitapur district of Uttar Pradesh.
- Todarmal was one of Navratnas in Ashoka’s Darbar.
- The Mughal Emperor Akbar was a great lover of the artists. His passion for knowledge and interest in learning from great minds attracted him to men of genius to his court. Nine of these courtiers were known as Akbar's navaratnas.
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