Literature, Art, Architecture




Literature, Art, Architecture:

  • The tradition of writing poetry and grammar was prevalent in south India from ancient times.The ‘Sangham literature’ is supposed to be most ancient in the Tamil tradition as it is one of the main sources of the political history of South India. It is believed that three ‘Sanghams’ (Council) were held.
  • This period was important from the point of view of Sanskrit literature. Kalidasa composed the ‘Meghadoota’ at Ramtek in Vidarbha.
  • During the Vakataka rule, compositions in the Prakrit language were created.
  • Pravarasena II, the Vakataka king, wrote the well-known composition named ‘Setubandha’ while ‘Harivijaya’ was composed by Sarvasena, the founder of the Vatsagulma branch of Vakatakas.

South-Indian Art:

The metal statues of the Chola period are the best among Indian metal sculptures. Among them, the most famous is the bronze statue of Natarajan Shiva.

  • During the Vakataka period, the sculptural art and paintings reached its zenith.
  • The Ajanta caves no. 1, 2, 16, 17, and 19 were carved out during this period.
  • It seems that the artists had good knowledge about the details of physiology and nature.


Two styles of architecture are seen in South India, one is the ‘Dravida’ style and the other is the ‘Vesara’ style of architecture.

  • The Dravida style of architecture emerged and developed in the regions from the Krishna river to Kanyakumari.
  • The important feature of Dravida architecture is identified by the construction of Shikhara. In this type, the stories reduce in size as the Shikhara rises.
  • Kailasnath and Vaikuntha Perumal temples at Kanchi, Breehadeshvara temple at Tanjore are some of the excellent examples of the Dravida style of architecture.
  • The Chalukyas built temples at places like Aihole, Badami, and Pattadakal, etc. During the Rashtrakuta period, the world-famous ‘Kailasa’ temple was created.

Hemadpanti Style of Architecture:

  • Hemadpanti is an architectural style, named after its founder, the prime minister Hemadpant from the court of the Yadavas of Devagiri.
  • This building style was formed during the 13th century in Maharashtra, and incorporated black stone and lime, which were readily available.
  • An important feature of the Hemadpanti temples is that no mortar is used. Instead, the stones are interlocked with the help of mortise and tenon.
  • The Gondeshwar temple at Sinnar and the temple complex at Anjaneri are the finest examples among the temples built during this period in this style.
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