India and the Contemporary World - 1
The French Revolution
- Introduction of the French Revolution
- French Society During the Late Eighteenth Century
- The Outbreak of the Revolution
- France Abolishes Monarchy and Becomes a Republic
- Did Women Have a Revolution
- The Abolition of Slavery
- The Revolution and Everyday Life
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
- The Age of Social Change
- The Russian Revolution
- The February Revolution in Petrograd
- What Changed After October?
- The Global Influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR
Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
- Introduction of Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
- Birth of the Weimar Republic
- Hitler’s Rise to Power
- The Nazi Worldview
- Youth in Nazi Germany
- Ordinary People and the Crimes Against Humanity
Forest Society and Colonialism
- Introduction of Forest Society and Colonialism
- Deforestation and Its Causes
- The Rise of Commercial Forestry
- Rebellion in the Forest
- Forest Transformations in Java
Pastoralists in the Modern World
- Introduction of Pastoralists in the Modern World
- Pastoral Nomads and Their Movements
- Colonial Rule and Pastoral Life
- Pastoralism in Africa
Contemporary India - 1
India - Size and Location
Physical Features of India
- Climate of India
- Climatic Controls
- Factors Affecting the Indian Climate
- The Indian Monsoon
- The Onset of the Monsoon and Withdrawal
- Seasons of India
- The Winter Season or Cold Weather
- The Summer or Hot Weather Season
- Southwest Monsoon or Rainy Season
- Northeast monsoon season or Retreating Monsoon
- Distribution of Rainfall
- Monsoon as a Unifying Bond
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
Democratic Politics - 1
What is Democracy? Why Democracy?
- What is Democracy?
- Features of Democracy
- Why Democracy
- Broader Meanings of Democracy
- Democratic Constitution in South Africa
- Why Do We Need a Constitution?
- Making of the Indian Constitution
- Guiding Values of the Indian Constitution
- Why Elections?
- What is Our System of Elections?
- What Makes Elections in India Democratic?
Working of Institutions
- How is a Major Policy Decision Taken
- Political Executive
- The Judiciary
- Life Without Rights
- Rights in a Democracy
- Rights in the Indian Constitution
- Expanding Scope of Rights
The Story of Village Palampur
- Introduction of the Story of Village Palampur
- Organisation of Production
- Farming in Palampur
- Non-farm Activities in Palampur
People as Resource
- Introduction of People as Resource
- Economic Activities by Men and Women
- Quality of Population
Poverty as a Challenge
- Introduction of Poverty as a Challenge
- Two Typical Cases of Poverty
- Poverty as Seen by Social Scientists
- Poverty Estimates
- Vulnerable Groups
- Inter-state Disparities
- Global Poverty Scenario
- Causes of Poverty
- Anti-poverty Measures
- The Challenges Ahead of Poverty
Food Security in India
- Food Security
- Food Insecure
- Food Security in India
- Buffer Stock
- Public Distribution System
- Current Status of the Public Distribution System
- Role of Cooperatives in Food Security
The Onset of the Monsoon and Withdrawal
- The Monsoon, unlike the trade winds, is fluctuating in nature, influenced by the various atmospheric conditions encountered on its way over the warm tropical seas. The monsoon season lasts 100-120 days, from early June to mid-September.
- Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is known as the ‘burst’ of the monsoon and can be distinguished from the pre-monsoon showers.
- The monsoon usually arrives in the first week of June at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula. It then divides into two branches: the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.
- The Arabian Sea branch arrives in Mumbai about ten days later, on June 10th. This is a fairly speedy progression.
- The Bay of Bengal branch moves quickly as well, arriving in Assam in the first week of June. Because of the high mountains, the monsoon winds deflect westward over the Ganga plains.
- The Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Saurashtra-Kuchchh and the central part of the country by mid-June. The monsoon branches of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal join over the northwestern part of the Ganga plains.
- By the end of June (the tentative date is the 29th of June), Delhi usually receives monsoon rains from the Bay of Bengal branch. The monsoon arrives in western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and eastern Rajasthan by the first week of July. The monsoon arrives in Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country by mid-July.
- The monsoon's withdrawal, or retreat, is a more slow process. By early September, the monsoon has begun to recede in northwestern states of India. It completely retreats from the northern half of the peninsula by mid-October. The withdrawal from the southern half of the peninsula is relatively quick. The monsoon had left the rest of the country by early December.
- From the last week of April to the first week of May, the islands experience the first monsoon showers, which move progressively from south to north. From the first week of December to the first week of January, the withdrawal occurs progressively from north to south. The rest of the country has already been affected by the winter monsoon.
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