Interpretation of Topographical Maps
Map of India
Location, Extent and Physical Features
- India: a Subcontinent
- Indian - Location, Size and Extent
- India’s Land and Water Frontiers
- Physical Divisions of India
- The Himalayas
- Characteristics of Himalayas
- Significance of the Great Northern Wall
- North Indian Plains
- Significance of the Northern Indian Plains
- The Peninsular Indian Plateau
- Drainage Systems in the Peninsular India
- Significance of the Peninsular Plateau
- The Indian Coastal Plains
- Significance of the Coastal Plains
- The Indian Islands
- Natural Vegetation of India
- Importance of Forest
- Tropical Evergreen or Rain Forests
- Tropical Deciduous Forest
- Tropical Thorny Forests and Scrubs
- Mangrove Forests (Tidal Forest)
- Mountain or Montane Forest
- Correlation of the Natural Vegetation (Forest) with the Environment
- Forest Conservation
- Measures of Forest Conservation
Mineral and Energy Resources
- Impact of Waste Accumulation - Spoilage of Landscape
- Impact of Waste Accumulation - Pollution
- Impact of Waste Accumulation - Health Hazards
- Effect on Terrestrial, Aquatic (Fresh Water and Marine) Life
- Solid Waste Management
- Need for Waste Management
- Methods of Safe Disposal - Segregation, Dumping and Composting
- Need and Methods for Reducing, Reusing and Recycling Waste.
Man has overexploited the forests to satisfy both his needs and his greed. This has resulted in a decrease in forest cover.
- Forests have been cleared to make way for agricultural land due to rapid population growth and increased demand for food.
- Forests have been converted into pasture land in order to expand dairy farming and cattle ranching.
- Overgrazing by animals in tropical and subtropical forests has resulted in the large-scale degradation of natural vegetation.
- Because of industrial expansion and urbanisation, there is an ever-increasing demand for timber for various purposes. It has intensified the problem of deforestation.
- Construction of multi-purpose river valley projects has resulted in land submergence and the destruction of forested riversides.
All these factors have led to the decline in forests, which have the following effects:
- The decline in the forests has resulted in decreased forest productivity.
- Forests have an impact on the human environment by moderating climate, regulating water supply, maintaining soil fertility, and purifying air. The absence of forest cover causes soil erosion, which increases the load on rivers. The increased surface load reduces the water available in rivers for human consumption. Floods are caused by siltation, which destroys property, crops, and living beings.
- Lack of forest cover reduces precipitation, thus causing droughts.
- Forests serve as a sink for carbon dioxide that the trees, use during photosynthesis. The lack of forests raises the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. As a result, the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere increases. This causes global warming and its harmful consequences by raising the temperature of the earth's surface and atmosphere.
- As a result, forest conservation is critical to the survival and prosperity of humanity.
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