Distribution of Rainfall

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Notes

Distribution of Rainfall 

  • The average annual rainfall in India is 118 cm. However, the spatial distribution of rainfall in the country is highly uneven.
  • Annual rainfall in parts of the western coast and northeastern India is more than 400 cm. It is, however, less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and neighboring Gujarat, Haryana, and Punjab. Rainfall is equally low in the interior of the Deccan plateau and east of the Sahyadris. A third area of low precipitation is located in Jammu and Kashmir, around Leh. The rest of the country experiences moderate precipitation. Snowfall is limited to the Himalayan range.
  • Because of the nature of monsoons, annual rainfall varies greatly from year to year. Variability is high in low-rainfall areas, such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the leeward side of the Western Ghats. As such, while areas with high rainfall are prone to flooding, areas with low rainfall are prone to drought.

Seasonal Rainfall (June-September)

 

Annual Rainfall

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Stations Latitude Altitude (Metres) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. July. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual Rainfall

Temperature (°C)

   

20.5

22.7

25.2

27.1

26.7

24.2

23.0

23.0

23.1

22.9

18.9

20.2

 
Bengaluru 12°58'N 909                  

 

 

 

 
Rainfall (cm)     0.7 0.9 1.1 4.5 10.7 7.1 11.1 13.7 16.4

15.3

6.1

1.3

88.9

Temperature (°C)

   

24.4

24.4

26.7

28.3

30.0

28.9

27.2

27.2

27.2

27.8

27.2

25.0

 

Mumbai

19° N 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

0.2

0.2

 –

1.8

50.6

61.0

36.9

26.9

4.8

1.0

 –

183.4

Temperature (°C)

   

19.6

22.0

27.1

30.1

30.4

29.9

28.9

28.7

28.9

27.6

23.4

19.7

 

Kolkata

22°34'N 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

1.2

2.8

3.4

 5.1

13.4

29.0

33.1

33.4

25.3

12.7

2.7

0.4

162.5

Temperature (°C)

   

14.4

16.7

23.3

30.0

33.3

33.3

30.0

29.4

28.9

25.6

19.4

15.6

 

Delhi

29° N 219

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

2.5

1.5

1.3

1.0

1.8

7.4

19.3

17.8

11.9

1.3

0.2

1.0

67.0

Temperature (°C)

   

16.8

19.2

26.6

29.8

33.3

33.9

31.3

29.0

20.1

27.0

20.1

14.9

 

Jodhpur

26°18'N 224

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

0.5

0.6

0.3

0.3

1.0

3.1

10.8

13.1

5.7

5.7

0.2

0.2

36.6

Temperature (°C)

   

24.5

25.7

27.7

30.4

33.0

32..5

31.0

30.2

29.8

28.0

25.9

24.9

 

Chennai

13°4'N 7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

4.6

1.3

1.3

1.8

3.8

22.2

8.7

11.3

11.9

30.6

35.0

0.2

128.6

Temperature (°C)

   

21.5

23.9

28.3

32.7

35.5

32.0

27.7

27.3

27.9

26.7

23.1

20.7

 

Nagpur

21°9'N 312

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

1.1

2.3

1.7

1.6

2.1

22.2

37.6

28.6

18.5

5.5

2.0

13.9

124.2

Temperature (°C)

   

9.8

11.3

15.9

18.5

19.2

20.5

21.1

20.9

20.9

17.2

13.3

10.4

 

Shillong

24°34'N 1461

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

1.4

2.9

5.6

14.6

29.5

47.6

35.9

34.3

30.2

18.8

3.8

1.0

225.3

Temperature (°C)

   

26.7

27.3

28.3

28.7

28.6

26.6

26.2

26.2

26.5

26.7

26.6

26.5

 

Thiruvananthapuram

8°29'N 61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

2.3

2.1

3.7

10.6

20.8

35.6

22.3

14.6

13.8

27.3

20.6

7.5

181.2

Temperature (°C)

   

−8.5

−7.2

−0.6

6.1

10.0

14.4

17.2

16.1

12.2

6.1

0.0

−5.6

 

Leh

34°N 3506

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall (cm)

   

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.3

1.3

0.8

0.5

0.5

8.5

In above Table the average mean monthly temperatures and amounts of rainfall of ten representative stations have been given. It is for you to study on your own and convert them into ‘temperature and rainfall’ graphs. A glance at these visual representations will help you to grasp instantly the similarities and differences between them. One such graph (Figure 1) is already prepared for you. See if you can arrive at some broad generalisations about our diverse climatic conditions. 

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