# Selina solutions for Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE chapter 4 - Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding [Latest edition]

## Chapter 4: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Exercise 4 (A)Exercise 4 (B)Exercise 4 (C)Exercise 4 (D)Exercise 4 (E)
Exercise 4 (A) [Page 59]

### Selina solutions for Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE Chapter 4 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondingExercise 4 (A) [Page 59]

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 1.1 | Page 59

What is the contribution of the following in atomic structure?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 1.2 | Page 59

What is the contribution of the following in atomic structure?
Democritus

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 2 | Page 59

State Dalton's atomic theory.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 3 | Page 59

What is an α (alpha) particle?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 4 | Page 59

What are cathode rays? How are these rays formed?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 5.1 | Page 59

What is the nature of the charge on Cathode rays .

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 5.2 | Page 59

What is the nature of the charge on Anode rays?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 6 | Page 59

How are X-rays produced?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 7 | Page 59

Why are anode rays also called as 'canal rays'?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 8 | Page 59

How does cathode ray differ from as anode rays?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 9 | Page 59

State one observation which shows that atom is not indivisible.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 10.1 | Page 59

Name an element which does not contain neutron.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 10.2 | Page 59

If an atom contains one electron and one proton, will it carry as a whole is neutral

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 11 | Page 59

On the basis of Thomson's model of an atom explain how an atom as a whole is neutral.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 12.1 | Page 59

Which sub-atomic particle was discovered by Thomson.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 12.2 | Page 59

Which sub-atomic particle was discovered by Goldstein.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 12.3 | Page 59

Which sub-atomic particle was discovered by Chadwick.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 13.1 | Page 59

Name the sub-atomic particle whose charge is +1.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 13.2 | Page 59

Name the sub-atomic particle whose charge is -1.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 13.3 | Page 59

Name the sub-atomic particle whose charge is 0.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 14.1 | Page 59

Which metal did rutherford select for his alpha particle scattering experiment and why?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 14.2 | Page 59

What do you think would be the observation of alpha particle scattering experiment if carried out on (i) heavy nucleus like platinum (ii) light nuclei like litheum.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 15 | Page 59

On the basis of Rutherford's model of an atom, which subatomic particle is present in the nucleus of an atom?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 16 | Page 59

Which part of atom was discovered by Rutherford?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 17 | Page 59

How was it shown that atom has empty space?

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 18 | Page 59

State one major drawback of Rutherford's model.

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 19 | Page 59

In the figure given alongside

(a) Name the shells denoted by A,B, and C. Which shell has least energy

(b) Name X and state the charge on it

(c) The above sketch is of …………. Model of an atom

Exercise 4 (A) | Q 20 | Page 59

Give the postulates of Bohr's atomic model

Exercise 4 (B) [Page 63]

### Selina solutions for Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE Chapter 4 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondingExercise 4 (B) [Page 63]

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 1.1 | Page 63

Name the three fundamental particles of an atom.

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 1.2 | Page 63

Give the symbol and charge of each particle.

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 2 | Page 63

Complete the table given below by identifying P, Q, R and S.

 Element Symbol No. of Protons No. of neutrons No. of Electrons Sodium ""_11^23"NA" 11 P 11 Chlorine ""_17^35"CI" Q 18 17 Uranium R 92 146 92 S ""_9^19"F" 9 10 9

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 3 | Page 63

The atom of an element is made up of 4 protons, 5 neutrons and 4 electrons. What are its atomic number and mass number?

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 4 | Page 63

The atomic number and mass number of sodium are 11 and 23 respectively. What information is conveyed by this statement?

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 5 | Page 63

Write down the names of the particles represented by the following symbols and explain the meaning of superscript and subscript numbers attached ""_1"p"^1, ""_0"n"^1,""_-1"e"^0

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 6 | Page 63

From the symbol ""_12^24"Mg"
, state the mass number, the atomic number and electronic configuration of magnesium.

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 7 | Page 63

Sulphur has an atomic number 16 and a mass of 32.

State the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of sulphur. Give a simple diagram to show the arrangement of electrons in an atom of sulphur.

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 8 | Page 63

Explain the rule according to which electrons are filled in various energy levels.

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 9 | Page 63

Draw the orbital diagram of ""_20^40"Ca"^(2+) ion and state the number of three fundamental particles present in it.

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 10.1 | Page 63

Write down the electronic configuration of the following:

(a) ""_13^27"Y"

(b) ""_17^35"Y"

Exercise 4 (B) | Q 10.2 | Page 63

Write down the number of electrons in X and neutrons in Y.

Exercise 4 (C) [Pages 66 - 67]

### Selina solutions for Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE Chapter 4 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondingExercise 4 (C) [Pages 66 - 67]

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 1 | Page 66

How does the Modern atomic theory contradict and correlate with Dalton's atomic theory?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 2.1 | Page 66

What are inert elements?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 2.2 | Page 66

Why do they exist as monoatoms in molecules?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 2.3 | Page 66

What are valence electrons?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 3 | Page 66

In what respects do the three isotopes of hydrogen differ? Give their structures.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 4 | Page 66

Match the atomic numbers 4,14,8,15 and 19 with each of the following:

1. A solid non-metal of valency 3.
2. A gas of valency 2.
3. A metal of valency 1.
4. A non-metal of valency 4.
Exercise 4 (C) | Q 5 | Page 66

Draw diagrams representing the atomic structures of the following:

1. Sodium atom
2. Chlorine ion
3. Carbon atom
4. Oxygen ion
Exercise 4 (C) | Q 6 | Page 66

What is the significance of the number of protons found in the atoms of different elements?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 7 | Page 66

Elements X, Y and Z have atomic numbers 6,9 and 12 respectively. Which one:

Forms an onion
Forms a cation
Has four electrons in its valence shell?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 8 | Page 66

Element X has electronic configuration 2,8,18,8,1. Without identifying X,

Predict the sign and charge on a simple ion of X.

Write if X will be an oxidizing agent or a reducing agent. Why?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 9.1 | Page 66

Define the term:

Mass number

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 9.2 | Page 66

Define the term:

Ion

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 9.3 | Page 66

Define the term: Cation

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 9.4 | Page 66

Define the term: Anion

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 9.5 | Page 66

Define the term: Element

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 9.6 | Page 66

Define the term:

orbit

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 10 | Page 66

From the symbol ""_2^4"He"  for the element helium, write down the mass number and the atomic number of the element.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 11 | Page 66

Five atoms are labeled A to E

 Atoms Mass No Atomic No. A 40 20 B 19 9 C 7 3 D 16 8 E 14 7

(a) Which one of these atoms:

(i) contains 7 protons
(ii) has electronic configuration 2,7

(b) Write down the formula in the compound formed between C and D

(c) Predict : (i) metals (ii) non-metals

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 12 | Page 66

An atom of an element has two electrons in the M shell.

What is the (a) atomic number (b) number of protons in this element?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 13 | Page 66

$\ce{^24_12Mg}$ and $\ce{^26_12Mg}$ are symbols of isotopes of magnesium.

(a) Compare the atoms of these isotopes with respect to :
i. the composition of their nuclei
ii. their electronic configurations

(b) Give reasons why the two isotopes of magnesium have different mass numbers.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 14 | Page 67

What are nucleons? How many nucleons are present in phosphorus? Draw its structure.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 15 | Page 67

What are isotopes? With reference to which fundamental particle do isotopes differ? Give two uses of isotopes.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 16 | Page 67

Why do ""_17^35"CI" and ""_17^37"CI"  have the same chemical properties? In what respect do these atoms differ?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 17 | Page 67

Explain fractional atomic mass. What is the fractional mass of chlorine?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 18.1 | Page 67

What is meant by the 'atomic number of an element'?

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 18.2 | Page 67

Complete the table given below

 No. of protons No. of electrons No. of Neutrons Atomic Number Mass number ""_17^35"CI" ""_17^37"CI"
Exercise 4 (C) | Q 18.3 | Page 67

Write down the electronic configuration of
(i) chlorine atom (ii) chlorine ion

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 19.1 | Page 67

Name the following:

The element which does not contain any neutron in its nucleus.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 19.2 | Page 67

Name the following:

An element having valency 'zero'

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 19.3 | Page 67

Name the following:

Metal with valency 2

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 19.4 | Page 67

Name the following:

Two atoms having the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 19.5 | Page 66

Name the following:

The shell closest to the nucleus of an atom

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 20.1 | Page 67

Give a reason

Physical properties of isotopes are different.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 20.2 | Page 67

Give reason

Argon does not react.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 20.3 | Page 67

Give reason

Actual atomic mass is greater than mass number.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 20.4 | Page 67

Give reason

""_17^35"CI" and ""_17^37"CI" do not differ in their chemical reactions.

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 21 | Page 67

An element A atomic number 7 mass numbers 14
B electronic configuration 2,8,8
C electrons 13, neutrons 14
D Protons 18 neutrons 22
E Electronic configuration 2,8,8,1

State Valency of each element

An element A atomic number 7 mass numbers 14

B electronic configuration 2,8,8

C electrons 13, neutrons 14

D Protons 18 neutrons 22

E Electronic configuration 2,8,8,1

State (i) Valency of each element (ii) which one is a metal (iii) which is non-metal (iv) which is an inert gas

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 22.1 | Page 67

Choose the correct option

Rutherford's alpha-particle scattering experiment discovered

• Electron

•  Proton

• Atomic nucleus

• Neutron

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 22.2 | Page 67

Choose the correct option

The number of valence electrons in O2- is :

• 6

• 8

• 10

• 4

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 22.3 | Page 67

Choose the correct option

Which of the following is the correct electronic configuration of potassium?

• 2,8,9

• 8,2,9

• 2,8,8,1

• 1,2,8,8

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 22.4 | Page 67

Choose the correct option:

The mass number of an atom whose unipositive ion has 10 electrons and 12 neutrons is :

• 22

• 23

• 21

• 20

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 23.1 | Page 67

Explain

Octet rule for the formation of sodium chloride

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 23.2 | Page 67

Explain

Duplet rule for the formation of hydrogen

Exercise 4 (C) | Q 24 | Page 67

Complete the following table relating to the atomic structure of some elements.

 Element Symbol Atomic Number Mass Number Numbers of neutrons Number of Electrons Number of Protons Li 3 6 Cl 17 20 Na 12 11 Al 27 13 S 32 16
Exercise 4 (D) [Page 71]

### Selina solutions for Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE Chapter 4 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondingExercise 4 (D) [Page 71]

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 1 | Page 71

How do atoms attain noble gas configurations?

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 2 | Page 71

Define electrovalent bond.

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 3 | Page 71

Elements are classified as metals, non-metal, metalloids, and inert gases. Which of them form an electrovalent bond?

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 4.1 | Page 71

An atom X has three electrons more than the noble gas configuration. What type of ion will it form?

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 4.2 | Page 71

Write the formula of its (X)

sulphate
nitrate
phosphate
carbonate
hydroxide.

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 5 | Page 71

Mention the basic tendency of an atom which makes it combine with other atoms

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 6 | Page 71

What type of compounds are usually formed between metals and non-metals and why?

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 7.1 | Page 71

In the formation of the compound XY2, an atom X gives one electron to each Y atom. What is the nature of the bond in XY2?

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 7.2 | Page 71

Draw the electron dot structure of this compound.

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 8.1 | Page 71

An atom X has 2, 8, 7 electrons in its shell. It combines with Y having 1 electron in its outermost shell.

What type of bond will be formed between X and Y?

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 8.2 | Page 71

An atom X has 2, 8, 7 electrons in its shell. It combines with Y having 1 electron in its outermost shell.

Write the formula of the compound formed.

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 9.1 | Page 71

Draw orbit structure diagram of sodium chloride (NaCl).

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 9.2 | Page 71

Draw orbit structure diagram of calcium oxide (CaO).

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 10.1 | Page 71

Compare :

Sodium atom and sodium ion

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 10.2 | Page 71

Compare:

Chlorine atom and chloride ion, with respect to

Atomic structure
Electrical state

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 11 | Page 71

The electronic configuration of fluoride ion is the same as that of the neon atom. What is the difference between the two?

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 12.1 | Page 71

What do you understand by redox reactions?

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 12.2 | Page 71

Explain oxidation and reduction in terms of loss or gain of electrons.

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 13.1 | Page 71

Potassium (at No.19) and chlorine (at No.17) react to form a compound. Explain the formation of the compound on the basis of:

Oxidation

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 13.2 | Page 71

Potassium (at No.19) and chlorine (at No.17) react to form a compound. Explain the formation of the compound on the basis of:

Reduction

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 13.3 | Page 71

Potassium (at No.19) and chlorine (at No.17) react to form a compound. Explain the formation of the compound on the basis of:

Oxidizing agent

Exercise 4 (D) | Q 13.4 | Page 71

Potassium (at No.19) and chlorine (at No.17) react to form a compound. Explain the formation of the compound on the basis of:

Reducing agent

Exercise 4 (E) [Pages 76 - 77]

### Selina solutions for Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE Chapter 4 Atomic Structure and Chemical BondingExercise 4 (E) [Pages 76 - 77]

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 1.1 | Page 76

Define a covalent bond.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 2 | Page 76

Covalent bonds can be single, double or triple covalent bonds. How many electrons are shared in each? Give an example of each type.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 4 | Page 77

An element A has 1 electron in its first shell. It combines with element B having 7 electrons in its third shell. What type of bond is formed?

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 5.1 | Page 77

Match the atomic numbers 4,8,10,15 and 19 with the following:

Element which can form trivalent ion

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 5.2 | Page 77

Match the atomic numbers 4,8,10,15 and 19 with the following:

Element with four shells

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 5.3 | Page 77

Match the atomic numbers 4,8,10,15 and 19 with the following:

Element with 6 valence electrons

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 5.4 | Page 77

Match the atomic numbers 4,8,10,15 and 19 with each of the following:

An element which does not form ion

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 6.1 | Page 77

If electrons are getting added to en element Y; then

Is Y getting oxidized or reduced?

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 6.2 | Page 77

If electrons are getting added to en element Y; then

What charge will Y migrate to during the process of electrolysis?

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 7.1 | Page 77

Elements X, Y and Z have atomic numbers 6,9 and 12 respectively. Which one:

1. Forms an anion
2. Forms a cation
Exercise 4 (E) | Q 7.2 | Page 77

State the type of bond between Y and Z and give its molecular formula.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 8 | Page 77

Taking MgCl2 as an electrovalent compound, CCl4 as a covalent compound, give four difference between electrovalent and covalent compounds

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 9 | Page 77

Potassium chloride is an electrovalent compound, while hydrogen chloride is a covalent compound, But, both conduct electricity in their aqueous solutions. Explain.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 10 | Page 77

Name two compounds that are covalent when taken pure but produce ions when dissolved in water.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 11 | Page 77

An element M burns in oxygen to form an ionic compound MO. Write the formula of the compounds formed if this element is made to continue with chlorine and sulfur separately.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 12.1 | Page 77

Give the orbital diagram of the following:

Magnesium chloride

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 12.2 | Page 77

Give the orbital diagram of the following:

Nitrogen

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 12.3 | Page 77

Give the orbital diagram of the following:

Methane

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 12.4 | Page 77

Give the orbital diagram of the following:

Hydrogen chloride

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 13.1 | Page 77

State the type of bonding in the following molecules.

Water,

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 13.2 | Page 77

State the type of bonding in the following molecules.

Calcium oxide

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 13.3 | Page 77

State the type of bonding in the following molecules.

Hydrogen chloride

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 14 | Page 77

Element M forms a chloride with the formula MCl2 which is solid with a high melting point. What type of bond is in MCl2. Write the formula of the compound when M combines with sulphur, oxygen, and nitrogen.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 15.1 | Page 77

Explain the following:

Mass of an atom is concentrated inside the nucleus of the atom.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 15.2 | Page 77

Explain the following:

Atoms combine by transfer and sharing of an electron(s).

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 15.3 | Page 77

Explain the following:

An element has atoms with different mass numbers.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 15.4 | Page 77

Explain the following:

Carbon-12 and carbon-14 both show similar chemical properties.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 16.1 | Page 77

Choose the correct answer from A, B, C and D:

The characteristic of an electrovalent compound is that:

•  They are formed by the sharing of electrons.

•  They are formed between metals and non-metals.

• They are formed between two non-metals.

• They often exist as a liquid.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 16.2 | Page 77

Choose the correct answer from A, B, C and D:

When a metal atom becomes an ion:

•  It loses electrons and is oxidised.

• It gains electrons and is reduced.

• It gains electrons and is oxidised.

• It loses electrons and is reduced.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 17.1 | Page 77

Identify the following reaction as either oxidation or reduction:

O + 2e- → O2-

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 17.2 | Page 77

Identify the following reaction as either oxidation or reduction:

K - e- → K+

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 17.3 | Page 77

Identify the following reaction as either oxidation or reduction:

Fe3+ + e- → Fe2+

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 17.4 | Page 77

Identify the following reaction as either oxidation or reduction:

Zn → Zn2+ + 2e-

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 18.1 | Page 77

Name the charged particles which attract one another to form electrovalent compound?

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 18.2 | Page 77

In the formation of electrovalent compounds, electrons are transferred from one element to another. How are electrons involved in the formation of a covalent compound?

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 18.3 | Page 77

The electronic configuration of nitrogen is (2, 5). How many electrons in the outer shell of a nitrogen atom are not involved in the formation of a nitrogen molecule?

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 18.4 | Page 77

In the formation of magnesium chloride (by direct combination between magnesium and chlorine), name the substance that is oxidized and the substance that is reduced.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 19.1 | Page 77

What is the term defined below?

A bond formed by a shared pair of electrons, each bonding atom contributing one electron to the pair.

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 19.2 | Page 77

What is the term defined below?

A bond formed by transfer of electron(s).

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 20.1 | Page 77

Name or state the following:

An element having valency zero

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 20.2 | Page 77

Name or state the following:

Metal with valency one

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 20.3 | Page 77

Name or state the following:

Atoms of the same element differing in mass number

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 20.4 | Page 77

Name or state the following:

Elements having same mass number but different atomic number

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 20.5 | Page 77

Name or state the following:

A bond formed by transfer of electron(s)

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 20.6 | Page 77

Name or state the following:

Ion formed by the gain of an electron(s)

Exercise 4 (E) | Q 21 | Page 77

An element X has 2 electrons in its M shell, it forms a bond with an element Y which has 7 electrons in its third orbit.

1. Write the formula of the compound formed.
2. Which nearest inert gas electronic configuration will element X and Y acquire.
3. Show by orbital diagram the formation of the compound between X and Y.
Exercise 4 (E) | Q 22 | Page 77

In the formation of (i) oxygen molecule (ii) carbon tetrachloride molecule, state the following:

1. Electronic configuration of nearest inert gas attained.
2. How many electrons are shared/transferred in bond formation
3. Which type of bonds these compounds form?
4. Draw their orbital diagrams.

## Chapter 4: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Exercise 4 (A)Exercise 4 (B)Exercise 4 (C)Exercise 4 (D)Exercise 4 (E)

## Selina solutions for Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE chapter 4 - Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Selina solutions for Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE chapter 4 (Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. The detailed, step-by-step solutions will help you understand the concepts better and clear your confusions, if any. Shaalaa.com has the CISCE Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE solutions in a manner that help students grasp basic concepts better and faster.

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Concepts covered in Concise Science Chemistry 1 Class 9 ICSE chapter 4 Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding are Chemical Bond, Atomic Number (Z), Isobars, Maharishid Kanad's Views on Atom, John Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Sub-atomic Particles of Atom, Formation of an Electrovalent (or Ionic) Bond, Formation of Covalent Bond, Elements, Neils Bohr’s model of an atom (atomic stability), Atoms: Building Blocks of Matter, Valency Electrons, Neutrons (n), Electrons (e), Electrovalent (or Ionic) Bond, Protons (p), Mass Number (A) or Atomic Mass, Nucleus, Electrons Distributed in Different Orbits (Shells), Types of Covalent Bond, Reason for Chemical Activity of an Atom, Structure of an Atom, J. J. Thomson’s Atomic model, Isotopes, Lord Rutherford’s Atomic model, The Covalent Bond.

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