Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationSSLC (English Medium) Class 10

Natural Vegetation of India - Mountain or Montane Forest




Mountain or Montane Forest

  • Climatic Conditions: These forests are found in areas where the annual temperature ranges from 12°C to 13°C, the annual rainfall ranges from 100 to 300cm, and the annual humidity ranges from 56 to 65 percent.
  • Relief: These foressts are found at an altitude between 1000 m to 4000 m. 
  • Distribution: These forests comprise the entire Himalayan region. They can be found in the Vindhyas, Nilgiris, and Western Ghats of the Peninsular region.
  • Characteristics Features: 
    i. These forests are made up of a variety of broad-leaved evergreen trees and conifers. They also have scrubs, creepers, and ferns.
    ii. Deciduous forests are found in the Himalayan foothills.
    iii. The moist temperate forests can be found at elevations ranging from 1000m to 2000m.
    iv. Evergreen broad leafed trees like chestnut and oak can be found in the hilly areas of West Bengal and Uttarakhand.
    v. Coniferous trees, such as the Chir pine, are important between the elevations of 1500m and 1750m. Blue pine and spruce can be found at elevations of 2250m and 3000m.
    vi. Alpine forests and alpine grass up to the snowline can be found at higher elevations, followed by mosses and lichens. There is no vegetation beyond the snowline.
    vii. The Peninsular regions are only about 1500m above sea level, and the vegetation ranges from tropical to temperate forests.
  • This is due to their proximity to the tropics and low elevation of only 1500m above sea level. As a result, the vegetation is temperate in the higher regions of the Western Ghats and subtropical in the lower regions, particularly in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. These temperate forests are called Sholas in the Nilgiris, Anaimalai and Palani hills.
  • Magnolia, laurel, cinchona, wattle, plum, and other important trees can be found in these forests.
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