Interpretation of Topographical Maps
Map of India
Location, Extent and Physical Features
- India: a Subcontinent
- Indian - Location, Size and Extent
- India’s Land and Water Frontiers
- Physical Divisions of India
- The Himalayas
- Characteristics of Himalayas
- Significance of the Great Northern Wall
- North Indian Plains
- Significance of the Northern Indian Plains
- The Peninsular Indian Plateau
- Drainage Systems in the Peninsular India
- Significance of the Peninsular Plateau
- The Indian Coastal Plains
- Significance of the Coastal Plains
- The Indian Islands
- Natural Vegetation of India
- Importance of Forest
- Tropical Evergreen or Rain Forests
- Tropical Deciduous Forest
- Tropical Thorny Forests and Scrubs
- Mangrove Forests (Tidal Forest)
- Mountain or Montane Forest
- Correlation of the Natural Vegetation (Forest) with the Environment
- Forest Conservation
- Measures of Forest Conservation
Mineral and Energy Resources
- Impact of Waste Accumulation - Spoilage of Landscape
- Impact of Waste Accumulation - Pollution
- Impact of Waste Accumulation - Health Hazards
- Effect on Terrestrial, Aquatic (Fresh Water and Marine) Life
- Solid Waste Management
- Need for Waste Management
- Methods of Safe Disposal - Segregation, Dumping and Composting
- Need and Methods for Reducing, Reusing and Recycling Waste.
Mountain or Montane Forest
- Climatic Conditions: These forests are found in areas where the annual temperature ranges from 12°C to 13°C, the annual rainfall ranges from 100 to 300cm, and the annual humidity ranges from 56 to 65 percent.
- Relief: These foressts are found at an altitude between 1000 m to 4000 m.
- Distribution: These forests comprise the entire Himalayan region. They can be found in the Vindhyas, Nilgiris, and Western Ghats of the Peninsular region.
- Characteristics Features:
i. These forests are made up of a variety of broad-leaved evergreen trees and conifers. They also have scrubs, creepers, and ferns.
ii. Deciduous forests are found in the Himalayan foothills.
iii. The moist temperate forests can be found at elevations ranging from 1000m to 2000m.
iv. Evergreen broad leafed trees like chestnut and oak can be found in the hilly areas of West Bengal and Uttarakhand.
v. Coniferous trees, such as the Chir pine, are important between the elevations of 1500m and 1750m. Blue pine and spruce can be found at elevations of 2250m and 3000m.
vi. Alpine forests and alpine grass up to the snowline can be found at higher elevations, followed by mosses and lichens. There is no vegetation beyond the snowline.
vii. The Peninsular regions are only about 1500m above sea level, and the vegetation ranges from tropical to temperate forests.
- This is due to their proximity to the tropics and low elevation of only 1500m above sea level. As a result, the vegetation is temperate in the higher regions of the Western Ghats and subtropical in the lower regions, particularly in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. These temperate forests are called Sholas in the Nilgiris, Anaimalai and Palani hills.
- Magnolia, laurel, cinchona, wattle, plum, and other important trees can be found in these forests.
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