Location and Extent
Physiography and Drainage
- Physical Divisions of India
- The North Indian Mountains
- The Himalayas
- North Indian Plains
- The Peninsular Indian Plateau
- The Indian Coastal Plains
- The Indian Islands
- Physiography of Brazil
- Brazilian Highlands
- The Great Escarpment in Brazil
- Coastline of Brazil
- Brazilian Plains
- Brazilian Island
- Drainage of Brazil
- Drainage Systems of India
- Himalayan Rivers
- Peninsular Rivers
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
Economy and Occupations
Tourism, Transport and Communication
Geography - Physical Divisions of India
Identification of Physical divisions
Geography - North Indian Mountains
Geography - North Indian Plain Region
Geography - Peninsular Plateau Region
Chhotta Nagpur Plateau
Geography - Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
Geography - Coastal Region
Eastern coastal plain
Western coastal plain
Geography - Indian Islands
Geography - Practical 1
Geography - Practical 2
Two dimensional diagrams
One dimensional diagrams
Economics - Introduction of an Economy
Introduction of an Economy
Economics - Basic problems of an economy solution
Economics - Inflation
Effects of inflation
Measures of Inflation
Causes of inflation
Economics - Public distribution system and consumer protection
Public Distribution system - meaning and explanation
Objectives of Public Distribution system
Drawbacks of Public Distribution system
Progress of Public Distribution system
Himalayan or Alpine Forest:
As is evident by the name that these forests are primarily found in the Himalayan mountain range.
- The decrease in temperature and increase in altitude result in a variety of vegetation types depending on factors such as mountain slope and sunrays receiving side.
- This includes both coniferous and deciduous type of forests.
- The ecosystem is extremely fragile. In recent decades, the Himalayan forests have been exploited in numerous ways.
- According to altitude, four types of forests can be found in the Indian Himalayas.
1) Tropical Forest: Dense vegetation covers areas with relatively low altitudes up to 1000 metres, a warm climate, and a good amount of rainfall. These areas have the appearance of a tropical forest. The most common species in these areas are sal and bamboo.
2) Sub Tropical Pine Forest: Evergreen broad leaf oak and chestnut are the most common species found in these forests at elevations ranging from 1000 to 2000 metres. Subtropical Pine forests occupy the same elevation in the eastern Himalayas. Chir is a common species in this area.
3) Moist Temperate Forest: Moist temperate forests in the Himalayas can be found at elevations ranging from 1500 to 3500 metres, with annual rainfall ranging from 100 to 250 cm. The main species found in this part of the Himalayas are oak, laurel, chestnut, cedar, silver, fir, spruce, rhododendron, and deodar. They have been extensively exploited for their wood.
4) Alpine Forest: Alpine forest found in the Himalayas at elevations ranging from 3000 to 3800 metres, with extensive highland grassland and sparsely distributed pine, birch, sliver, fir, and rhododendron trees.