#### Topics

##### Mathematical Logic

- Statements - Introduction in Logic
- Sentences and Statement in Logic
- Truth Value of Statement
- Open Sentences in Logic
- Compound Statement in Logic
- Quantifier and Quantified Statements in Logic
- Logical Connective, Simple and Compound Statements
- Logical Connective, Simple and Compound Statements
- Examples Related to Real Life and Mathematics
- Statement Patterns and Logical Equivalence
- Algebra of Statements
- Difference Between Converse, Contrapositive, Contradiction
- Application of Logic to Switching Circuits

##### Mathematical Logic

- Concept of Statements
- Truth Value of Statement
- Logical Connective, Simple and Compound Statements
- Statement Patterns and Logical Equivalence
- Tautology, Contradiction, and Contingency
- Duality
- Quantifier and Quantified Statements in Logic
- Negations of Compound Statements
- Converse, Inverse, and Contrapositive
- Algebra of Statements
- Application of Logic to Switching Circuits

##### Matrics

##### Trigonometric Functions

##### Pair of Straight Lines

##### Vectors

- Representation of Vector
- Vectors and Their Types
- Algebra of Vectors
- Coplanar Vectors
- Vector in Two Dimensions (2-D)
- Three Dimensional (3-D) Coordinate System
- Components of Vector
- Position Vector of a Point P(X, Y, Z) in Space
- Component Form of a Position Vector
- Vector Joining Two Points
- Section Formula
- Scalar Product of Vectors (Dot)
- Vector Product of Vectors (Cross)
- Scalar Triple Product of Vectors
- Vector Triple Product
- Addition of Vectors

##### Line and Plane

##### Linear Programming

##### Matrices

- Elementary Transformations
- Inverse by Elementary Transformation
- Elementary Transformation of a Matrix Revision of Cofactor and Minor
- Inverse of a Matrix Existance
- Adjoint Method
- Addition of Matrices
- Solving System of Linear Equations in Two Or Three Variables Using Reduction of a Matrix Or Reduction Method
- Solution of System of Linear Equations by – Inversion Method

##### Differentiation

##### Applications of Derivatives

##### Indefinite Integration

##### Definite Integration

##### Application of Definite Integration

##### Differential Equations

##### Probability Distributions

##### Binomial Distribution

##### Trigonometric Functions

- Trigonometric equations
- General Solution of Trigonometric Equation of the Type
- Solutions of Triangle
- Hero’s Formula in Trigonometric Functions
- Napier Analogues in Trigonometric Functions
- Basic Concepts of Trigonometric Functions
- Inverse Trigonometric Functions - Principal Value Branch
- Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

##### Pair of Straight Lines

- Pair of Lines Passing Through Origin - Combined Equation
- Pair of Lines Passing Through Origin - Homogenous Equation
- Theorem - the Joint Equation of a Pair of Lines Passing Through Origin and Its Converse
- Acute Angle Between the Lines
- Condition for Parallel Lines
- Condition for Perpendicular Lines
- Pair of Lines Not Passing Through Origin-combined Equation of Any Two Lines
- Point of Intersection of Two Lines

##### Circle

- Tangent of a Circle - Equation of a Tangent at a Point to Standard Circle
- Tangent of a Circle - Equation of a Tangent at a Point to General Circle
- Condition of tangency
- Tangents to a Circle from a Point Outside the Circle
- Director circle
- Length of Tangent Segments to Circle
- Normal to a Circle - Equation of Normal at a Point

##### Conics

##### Vectors

- Vectors Revision
- Collinearity and Coplanarity of Vectors
- Linear Combination of Vectors
- Condition of collinearity of two vectors
- Conditions of Coplanarity of Three Vectors
- Section Formula
- Midpoint Formula for Vector
- Centroid Formula for Vector
- Basic Concepts of Vector Algebra
- Scalar Triple Product of Vectors
- Geometrical Interpretation of Scalar Triple Product
- Application of Vectors to Geometry
- Medians of a Triangle Are Concurrent
- Altitudes of a Triangle Are Concurrent
- Angle Bisectors of a Triangle Are Concurrent
- Diagonals of a Parallelogram Bisect Each Other and Converse
- Median of Trapezium is Parallel to the Parallel Sides and Its Length is Half the Sum of Parallel Sides
- Angle Subtended on a Semicircle is Right Angle

##### Three Dimensional Geometry

##### Line

##### Plane

- Equation of Plane in Normal Form
- Equation of Plane Passing Through the Given Point and Perpendicular to Given Vector
- Equation of Plane Passing Through the Given Point and Parallel to Two Given Vectors
- Equation of a Plane Passing Through Three Non Collinear Points
- Equation of Plane Passing Through the Intersection of Two Given Planes
- Vector and Cartesian Equation of a Plane
- Angle Between Two Planes
- Angle Between Line and a Plane
- Coplanarity of Two Lines
- Distance of a Point from a Plane

##### Linear Programming Problems

##### Continuity

- Introduction of Continuity
- Continuity of a Function at a Point
- Defination of Continuity of a Function at a Point
- Discontinuity of a Function
- Types of Discontinuity
- Concept of Continuity
- Algebra of Continuous Functions
- Continuity in Interval - Definition
- Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
- Continuity of Some Standard Functions - Polynomial Function
- Continuity of Some Standard Functions - Rational Function
- Continuity of Some Standard Functions - Trigonometric Function
- Continuity - Problems

##### Differentiation

- Revision of Derivative
- Relationship Between Continuity and Differentiability
- Every Differentiable Function is Continuous but Converse is Not True
- Derivatives of Composite Functions - Chain Rule
- Derivative of Inverse Function
- Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Derivatives of Implicit Functions
- Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
- Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
- Derivative of Functions in Product of Function Form
- Derivative of Functions in Quotient of Functions Form
- Higher Order Derivative
- Second Order Derivative

##### Applications of Derivative

##### Integration

- Methods of Integration: Integration by Substitution
- Methods of Integration: Integration Using Partial Fractions
- Methods of Integration: Integration by Parts
- Definite Integral as the Limit of a Sum
- Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
- Properties of Definite Integrals
- Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution
- Integration by Non-repeated Quadratic Factors

##### Applications of Definite Integral

##### Differential Equation

- Basic Concepts of Differential Equation
- Order and Degree of a Differential Equation
- General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation
- Formation of Differential Equation by Eliminating Arbitary Constant
- Differential Equations with Variables Separable Method
- Homogeneous Differential Equations
- Linear Differential Equation
- Applications of Differential Equation

##### Statistics

##### Probability Distribution

- Conditional Probability
- Random Variables and Its Probability Distributions
- Discrete and Continuous Random Variable
- Probability Mass Function (P.M.F.)
- Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable
- Cumulative Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable
- Expected Value, Variance and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable
- Probability Density Function (P.D.F.)
- Distribution Function of a Continuous Random Variable

##### Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution

#### description

- Introduction of Distance of a Point from a Line
- Distance between two parallel lines

#### notes

Let L : Ax + By + C = 0 be a line, whose distance from the point P `(x_1, y_1)` is d. Draw a perpendicular PM from the point P to the line L in the Fig.

the line meets the x-and y-axes at the points Q and R, respectively. Then, coordinates of the points are `Q (-C/A,0)` and `R (0,-C/B)`. Thus the area of the triangle PQR is given by

area

`(triangle PQR)=1/2PM .QR`, which gives

PM=`(2 area (triangle PQR))/(QR)` ...(1)

Also, area `(triangle PQR) = 1/2 |x_1(0+C/B)+(-C/A)(-C/B-y_1)+0(y_1-0)|`

=`1/2|x_1C/B+y_1C/A +C_2/(AB)|`

or `2area(trianglePQR) = |C/(AB)|.|Ax_1 + By_1+C| `

and QR = `sqrt((0+C/A)^2 + (C/B-0)^2) = |C/(AB)| sqrt(A^2+B^2)`

Substituting the values of area (∆PQR) and QR in (1), we get

PM = `|Ax_1+By_1+C|/sqrt(A_2+B_2)`

or

d=`|Ax_1+By_1+C|/sqrt(A_2+B_2)`.

Thus, the Thus, the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By+ C = 0 from a point`(x_1, y_1)` is given by

d=`|Ax_1+By_1+C|/sqrt(A_2+B_2)`**Distance between two parallel lines :**

The slopes of two parallel lines are equal. Therefore, two parallel lines can be taken in the form

y = mx+c_1 ...(1)and

y = mx +c_2 ...(2)

Line (1) will intersect x-axis at the point

A`(-c_1/m,0)` as shown in fig.

Distance between two lines is equal to the length of the perpendicular from point A to line (2). Therefore, distance between the lines (1) and (2) is

`|(-m)(-c_1/m)+(-c_2)|/sqrt(1+m_2) or d = |c_1-c_2|/sqrt(1+m_2)`

Thus, the distance d between two parallel lines y= mx+ `c_1` and ` y= mx c_2` = + is given by

d = `|c_1-c_2|sqrt(1+m_2)`.

If lines are given in general form, i.e., `Ax + By + C_1` = 0 and `Ax + By + C_2 `= 0,

then above formula will take the form d =` |c_1-C_2|/sqrt(A_2+B_2)`.