Discuss the factors affecting the climate of Brazil.
Write about the factors affecting the climate of Brazil.
Considering the temperatures in Brazil, the northern part of Brazil is hot while the temperatures in the southern part are comparatively lower. Seasonal variations are found in this pattern.
The factors affecting Brazil are temperature, rainfall, winds, atmospheric pressure, etc. Altitude, latitude, relief characteristics, vegetation, and continentality also affect the climate of Brazil.
Near the equator on the Brazilian coast, the temperature does not vary much. The average temperature in the Amazon valley is 25 ° - 28° C. The climate is cooler in the Highlands. Because of the proximity to the sea, the coasts experience mild and humid climate.
- Latitudinal extent: Brazil experiences wide range of variations in climate due to its vast latitudinal extent. The temperature in the northern part of Brazil is hot while the temperature in the southern part are comparatively lower.
- Equator: The equator passes through the northern part of Brazil which means that the sun’s rays are perpendicular in this region throughout the year. Hence, the temperature here is hot. Moreover, this region receives Convectional type of rainfall. The average temperature in the Amazon valley is 25C – 28C and the rainfall is around 2000mm. So, the temperature here is humid. Thus, throughout the year this region experiences a hot and humid climate.
- The escarpment: Brazil receives rainfall from the South- East Trade winds as well as the North-East Trade winds. However, the escarpment acts as a barrier to the winds coming from the sea. This causes an orographic types of rainfall in the coastal areas. Beyond the highlands, as the effect of these winds gets reduced, the north-eastern part of the Highlands receives less rainfall and is called as a rain shadow region. This region is called Drought Quadrilateral.
- Weak convergence zone: In the equatorial regions, the winds move in the vertical direction in this region. Also the convergence zone of the trade winds near the coastal areas is extremely weak. As a result, cyclones are not formed.
- Highland and sea coast: The climate is cooler in the Highlands and the coasts experience mild and humid climates due to the proximity of the sea.
Thus, the vast latitudinal extent and the physiography of Brazil affect the climate of this country.