Define ‘genomics’. Give any ‘two’ applications of it.
Define Genomics. Give any two applications of the genomics.
Genomics is the study of the molecular organization of the genome. Human genome project (HGP) is aimed to produce the map of human genome. These maps help in the understanding location of genes, functions, distance between different genes and nucleotide sequence of each gene. HGP reveals that 99.9 % of genes are same in all individuals and only 0.001% difference is seen in DNA. Biotechnological applications for human health – Insulin is a hormone which regulates blood glucose level. In Diabetes mellitus patients, due to hyposecretion of insulin by pancreas, blood sugar level increases. Insulin is produced by using biotechnological methods. Vaccines are antigenic preparation which stimulates production of antibodies and induce immunity against several diseases.
Genomics is the study of genomes through analysis, sequencing, and mapping of genes along with the study of their functions.
Applications of Genomics:
- Structural and functional genomics is used for different purposes in the improvement of crop plants, human health, and livestock.
- The knowledge and understanding acquired from genomics research can be applied in a number of different sectors, including medicine, biotechnology, and social sciences.
- It helps in the treatment of genetic disorders through gene therapy.
- Genomics is used in agriculture to develop transgenic crops having more desirable characters.
- Genetic markers developed in genomics, have applications in forensic analysis.
- Genomics can lead to introducing new genes in microbes to produce enzymes, therapeutic proteins, and even biofuels.
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- Human Genome Project