Define ‘genomics’. Give any ‘two’ applications of it.
Genomics is the study of the molecular organization of the genome. Human genome project (HGP) is aimed to produce the map of human genome. These maps help in the understanding location of genes, functions, distance between different genes and nucleotide sequence of each gene. HGP reveals that 99.9 % of genes are same in all individuals and only 0.001% difference is seen in DNA. Biotechnological applications for human health – Insulin is a hormone which regulates blood glucose level. In Diabetes mellitus patients, due to hyposecretion of insulin by pancreas, blood sugar level increases. Insulin is produced by using biotechnological methods. Vaccines are antigenic preparation which stimulates production of antibodies and induce immunity against several diseases.
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- Human Genome Project