# NCERT solutions for Class 12 Physics Textbook chapter 14 - Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits [Latest edition]

## Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Exercise
Exercise [Pages 509 - 512]

### NCERT solutions for Class 12 Physics Textbook Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Exercise [Pages 509 - 512]

Exercise | Q 1 | Page 509

In an n-type silicon, which of the following statement is true:

• Electrons are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

• Electrons are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

• Holes are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

• Holes are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

Exercise | Q 2 | Page 509

In a p-type semiconductos, which of the following statement is true:

• Electrons are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

• Electrons are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

• Holes are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

• Holes are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

Exercise | Q 3 | Page 509

Carbon, silicon and germanium have four valence electrons each. These are characterised by valence and conduction bands separated by energy band gap respectively equal to (Eg)C, (Eg)Si and (Eg)Ge. Which of the following statements is true?

• (Eg)Si < (Eg)Ge < (Eg)C

• (Eg)C < (Eg)Ge > (Eg)Si

• (Eg)C > (Eg)Si > (Eg)Ge

• (Eg)C = (Eg)Si = (Eg)Ge

Exercise | Q 4 | Page 509

In an unbiased p-n junction, holes diffuse from the p-region to n-region because ______.

• free electrons in the n-region attract them.

• they move across the junction by the potential difference.

• hole concentration in p-region is more as compared to n-region.

• All the above.

Exercise | Q 5 | Page 510

When a forward bias is applied to a p-n junction, it ______.

• raises the potential barrier.

• reduces the majority carrier current to zero.

• lowers the potential barrier.

• None of the above.

Exercise | Q 6 | Page 510

For transistor action, which of the following statements are correct:

(a) Base, emitter and collector regions should have similar size and doping concentrations.

(b) The base region must be very thin and lightly doped.

(c) The emitter junction is forward biased and collector junction is reverse biased.

(d) Both the emitter junction as well as the collector junction are forward biased.

Exercise | Q 7 | Page 510

For a transistor amplifier, the voltage gain

(a) remains constant for all frequencies.

(b) is high at high and low frequencies and constant in the middle frequency range.

(c) is low at high and low frequencies and constant at mid frequencies.

(d) None of the above.

Exercise | Q 8 | Page 510

In half-wave rectification, what is the output frequency if the input frequency is 50 Hz. What is the output frequency of a full-wave rectifier for the same input frequency.

Exercise | Q 9 | Page 510

For a CE-transistor amplifier, the audio signal voltage across the collector resistance of 2 kΩ is 2 V. Suppose the current amplification factor of the transistor is 100, find the input signal voltage and base current if the base resistance is 1 kΩ.

Exercise | Q 10 | Page 510

Two amplifiers are connected one after the other in series (cascaded). The first amplifier has a voltage gain of 10 and the second has a voltage gain of 20. If the input signal is 0.01 volt, calculate the output ac signal.

Exercise | Q 11 | Page 510

A p-n photodiode is fabricated from a semiconductor with band gap of 2.8 eV. Can it detect a wavelength of 6000 nm?

Exercise | Q 12 | Page 510

The number of silicon atoms per m3 is 5 × 1028. This is doped simultaneously with 5 × 1022 atoms per m3 of Arsenic and 5 × 1020 per m3 atoms of Indium. Calculate the number of electrons and holes. Given that ni= 1.5 × 1016 m−3. Is the material n-type or p-type?

Exercise | Q 13 | Page 510

In an intrinsic semiconductor the energy gap Egis 1.2 eV. Its hole mobility is much smaller than electron mobility and independent of temperature. What is the ratio between conductivity at 600K and that at 300K? Assume that the temperature dependence of intrinsic carrier concentration niis given by

"n"_"i" = "n"_0 exp(- "E"_"g"/(2"k"_"BT"))

where nis a constant.

Exercise | Q 14 | Page 511

In a p-n junction diode, the current I can be expressed as

I = "I"_0 exp ("eV"/(2"k"_"BT") - 1)

where I0 is called the reverse saturation current, V is the voltage across the diode and is positive for forward bias and negative for reverse bias, and I is the current through the diode, kBis the Boltzmann constant (8.6×10−5 eV/K) and T is the absolute temperature. If for a given diode I0 = 5 × 10−12 A and T = 300 K, then

(a) What will be the forward current at a forward voltage of 0.6 V?

(b) What will be the increase in the current if the voltage across the diode is increased to 0.7 V?

(c) What is the dynamic resistance?

(d) What will be the current if reverse bias voltage changes from 1 V to 2 V?

Exercise | Q 15 | Page 511

You are given the two circuits as shown in following figure. Show that circuit

1. acts as OR gate while the circuit
2. acts as AND gate.

(a)

(b)

Exercise | Q 16 | Page 511

Write the truth table for a NAND gate connected as given in the following figure.

Hence identify the exact logic operation carried out by this circuit

Exercise | Q 17 | Page 511

You are given two circuits as shown in following figure, which consist of NAND gates. Identify the logic operation carried out by the two circuits.

(a)

(b)

Exercise | Q 18 | Page 511

Write the truth table for circuit given in figure below consisting of NOR gates and identify the logic operation (OR, AND, NOT) which this circuit is performing.

(Hint: A = 0, B = 1 then A and B inputs of second NOR gate will be 0 and hence Y=1. Similarly work out the values of Y for other combinations of A and B. Compare with the truth table of OR, AND, NOT gates and find the correct one.)

Exercise | Q 19 | Page 512

Write the truth table for the circuits given in following figure consisting of NOR gates only. Identify the logic operations (OR, AND, NOT) performed by the two circuits.

(a)

(b)

Exercise

## NCERT solutions for Class 12 Physics Textbook chapter 14 - Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

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Concepts covered in Class 12 Physics Textbook chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits are Concept of Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits, Integrated Circuits, Feedback Amplifier and Transistor Oscillator, Transistor as a Device, Basic Transistor Circuit Configurations and Transistor Characteristics, Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier, p-n Junction, Intrinsic Semiconductor, Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors, Extrinsic Semiconductor, Transistor Action, Transistor: Structure and Action, Digital Electronics and Logic Gates, Transistor as an Amplifier (Ce-configuration), Transistor and Characteristics of a Transistor, Semiconductor Diode, Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator, Special Purpose P-n Junction Diodes, Diode as a Rectifier, Energy Bands in Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators, Triode.

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