Section I : Political Concepts
Liberty and Rights
Section II : Comparative Government and Politics
Equality and Justice
Section III : Public Administration
Section IV : International Relations
Concept of Representation
Role of the Judiciary
The World since 1945 - I
The World since 1945 - II
Human rights are natural rights. They are related to the concept of Justice. These rights are universal in nature and are given to all humans without any social discrimination. Human beings need these rights for development of their abilities, intellect and skills. Similarly, these rights are necessary to uphold human dignity and values. Human rights include right to life, right to livelihood and freedom of expression along with the right to establish an organisation.
United Nations created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) on 10th December 1948. This declaration tries to combine natural and civil rights and also includes the principles which are essential for mankind like liberty, equality, justice and fraternity.
The General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
The idea of human rights spread quickly to India, Greece and eventually Rome. The most important advances since then have included:
1215: The Magna Carta:
The Magna Carta, or “Great Charter,” was arguably the most significant early influence on the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law today in the English-speaking world. It gave people new rights and made the king subject to the law.
1628: The Petition of Right:
The petition sent by the English Parliament to King Charles I complaining of a series of breaches of law. The petition sought recognition of four principles: no taxation without the consent of Parliament, no imprisonment without cause, no quartering of soldiers on subjects, and no martial law in peacetime.
1789: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen:
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, passed by France’s National Constituent Assembly in August 1789, is a fundamental document of the French Revolution that granted civil rights to some commoners, although it excluded a significant segment of the French population. A document of France, stating that all citizens are equal under the law.