The World since 1991
Key Concepts and Issues since 1991: Globalisation
Key Concepts and Issues since 1991: Humanitarian Issues
Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration
Contemporary India: Good Governance
India and the World
Emergence of Unipolarity:
The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union came to end signaling the end of bipolarity. This led to the emergence of a unipolar world order dominated by the United States.
In 1990, Iraq went in for a war against Kuwait and established control over its territory. There was a global reaction against it and the matter was discussed in the United Nations. The United States took the initiative and led a multinational the war ended with Kuwait becoming free from Iraqi control. The American President George H. Bush considered this as a moral victory and used the term ‘New World Order’ to describe the nature of the global situation. This American action had received global support, including from the Soviet Union, China, countries of the NATO, Israel, and the Arab States including Saudi Arabia. The Soviet Union which was facing internal problems disintegrated in 1991. Not much opposition was possible against the United States and eventually the meaning of the term ‘New World Order’ which implied American dominance and leadership in matters of security was accepted at the global level. This was the first expression of the unipolar world order.
The United States emerged as a dominant country. American dominance had political and economic dimensions. Politically, the American model of liberal-democratic governance was readily accepted and adopted by several post-communist states of Eastern Europe and elsewhere. The concept of good governance was linked to democracy. In the economic sphere, the socialist system of economy was given up by most of the countries.
One of the other aspects about American domination was the use of American ‘soft power’. Soft power is when you influence other countries without the use of military force. The influence is spread through economic, social, cultural, and other similar means.
What is Liberal Democracy?
Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy. Liberal democracy is currently one of the dominant political ideologies in the world. It gives importance to individual liberty. A liberal democracy is characterized by the presence of a few important features:
- Universal suffrage
- Free and fair elections
- Competitive party politics
- Rule of law
Do you know?
American political commentator Francis Fukuyama introduced the concept of 'End of History'. He believed that after the fall of communism in the Soviet Francis Fukuyama Union the socialist political, economic, and social system had come to its end and that the world would now have liberal democratic systems.