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Geography Class 12 CBSE (Commerce) CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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Academic year:

Units and Topics


100 Fundamentals of Human Geography
101 Human Geography
102 People
  • Population-distribution, density and growth
  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
  • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
  • Human development - concept; selected indicators,international comparisons
103 Human Activities
  • Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mmmg, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engagedin agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries.
  • Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing:types - household, small scale,large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries.
  • Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries.
  • Quatenary activities-concept; people engaged in quatenary activities - case study from selected countries.
104 Transport, Communication and Trade
  • Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.
  • Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.
  • Air transport- Intercontinental air routes.
  • Oil and gas pipelines.
  • Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information use of GPS.
  • International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of internat onal trade, role of WTO in International trade.
  • Ocean: National rights andinternational treaties.
105 Human Settlements
  • Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribut on of mega cities; problems of human settlementsin developing countries.
106 Map Work
200 India - People and Economy
201 People
  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variat ons in growth of population.
  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.
  • Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.
  • Population, environment and development.
202 Human Settlements
  • Rural settlements - types and distribution.
  • Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.
203 Resources and Development
  • Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
  • Water resources- availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management.
  • Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic ( Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
  • Industries · types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.
  • Planning in India· target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).
204 Transport, Communication and International Trade
  • Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.
  • International trade- changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.
205 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.
  • Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
  • Land degradation.
206 Map Work
300 Practical Work
301 Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping
302 Field Study Or Spatial Information Technology
303 Practical Record Book and Viva Voce
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